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TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. The TCP/IP suite of protocols has become a dominant technology due to its widespread use and reliability, while Ethernet is fast becoming a de facto industrial networking standard.

Rincian lebih lanjut

Practical TCP/IP and Ethernet Networking
Oleh Deon Reynders, Edwin Wright
Diterbitkan oleh Newnes, 2003
ISBN 0750658061, 9780750658065
306 halaman

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Kepengen belajar tentang SCADA? Ada baiknya sahabat download buku ini SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) For Industry Klik Disini.

Buku ini berisikan 298 halaman. Berikut ini daftar isi dari buku tersebut:

1 Background to SCADA 1
1.1 Introduction and brief history of SCADA 1
1.2 Fundamental principles of modern SCADA systems 2
1.3 SCADA hardware 4
1.4 SCADA software 5
1.5 Landlines for SCADA 6
1.6 SCADA and local area networks 7
1.7 Modem use in SCADA systems 7
1.8 Computer sites and troubleshooting 8
1.9 System implementation 9
2 SCADA systems, hardware and firmware 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Comparison of the terms SCADA, DCS, PLC and smart instrument 12
2.2.1 SCADA system 12
2.2.2 Distributed control system (DCS) 15
2.2.3 Programmable logic controller (PLC) 15
2.2.4 Smart instrument 16
2.2.5 Considerations and benefits of SCADA system 17
2.3 Remote terminal units 17
2.3.1 Control processor (or CPU) 19
2.3.2 Analog input modules 19
2.3.3 Typical analog input modules 26
2.3.4 Analog outputs 27
2.3.5 Digital inputs 28
2.3.6 Counter or accumulator digital inputs 29
2.3.7 Digital output module 31
2.3.8 Mixed analog and digital modules 33
2.3.9 Communication interfaces 33
2.3.10 Power supply module for RTU 33
2.3.11 RTU environmental enclosures 33
2.3.12 Testing and maintenance 34
2.3.13 Typical requirements for an RTU system 35
2.4 Application programs 36
2.5 PLCs used as RTUs 36
2.5.1 PLC software 37
2.5.2 Basic rules of ladder-logic 38
2.5.3 The different ladder-logic instructions 40
2.6 The master station 46
2.6.1 Master station software 48
vi Contents
2.6.2 System SCADA software 48
2.6.3 Local area networks 48
2.6.4 Ethernet 49
2.6.5 Token ring LANs 51
2.6.6 Token bus network 52
2.7 System reliability and availability 52
2.7.1 Redundant master station configuration 52
2.8 Communication architectures and philosophies 54
2.8.1 Communication architectures 54
2.8.2 Communication philosophies 56
2.8.3 Polled (or master slave) 56
2.8.4 CSMA/CD system (peer-to-peer) 59
2.9 Typical considerations in configuration of a master station 61
3 SCADA systems software and protocols 64
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 The components of a SCADA system 64
3.2.1 SCADA key features 65
3.3 The SCADA software package 67
3.3.1 Redundancy 70
3.3.2 System response time 72
3.3.3 Expandability of the system 72
3.4 Specialized SCADA protocols 72
3.4.1 Introduction to protocols 73
3.4.2 Information transfer 74
3.4.3 High level data link control (HDLC) protocol 78
3.4.4 The CSMA/CD protocol format 80
3.4.5 Standards activities 81
3.5 Error detection 82
3.5.1 Causes of errors 83
3.5.2 Feedback error control 84
3.6 Distributed network protocol 87
3.6.1 Introduction 87
3.6.2 Interoperability 87
3.6.3 Open standard 87
3.6.4 IEC and IEEE 88
3.6.5 SCADA 88
3.6.6 Development 88
3.6.7 Physical layer 88
3.6.8 Physical topologies 88
3.6.9 Modes 89
3.6.10 Datalink layer 92
3.6.11 Transport layer (pseudo-transport) 96
3.6.12 Application layer 97
Contents vii
3.6.13 Conclusion 97
3.7 New technologies in SCADA systems 97
3.7.1 Rapid improvement in LAN technology for master stations 97
3.7.2 Man machine interface 97
3.7.3 Remote terminal units 98
3.7.4 Communications 98
3.8 The twelve golden rules 98
4 Landlines 100
4.1 Introduction 100
4.2 Background to cables 100
4.3 Definition of interference and noise on cables 101
4.4 Sources of interference and noise on cables 102
4.4.1 Electrostatic coupling 103
4.4.2 Magnetic coupling 104
4.4.3 Impedance coupling 105
4.5 Practical methods of reducing noise and interference on cables 107
4.5.1 Shielding and twisting wires 107
4.5.2 Cable spacing 108
4.5.3 Tray spacing 110
4.5.4 Earthing and grounding requirements 111
4.5.5 Specific areas to focus on 111
4.6 Types of cables 112
4.6.1 General cable characteristics 112
4.6.2 Two wire open lines 114
4.6.3 Twisted pair cables 114
4.6.4 Coaxial cables 116
4.6.5 Fiber optics 116
4.6.6 Theory of operation 116
4.6.7 Modes of propagation 118
4.6.8 Specification of cables 120
4.6.9 Joining cables 120
4.6.10 Limitations of cables 121
4.7 Privately owned cables 121
4.7.1 Telephone quality cables 121
4.7.2 Data quality twisted pair cables 122
4.7.3 Local area networks (LANs) 122
4.7.4 Multiplexers (bandwidth managers) 122
4.7.5 Assessment of existing copper cables 125
4.8 Public network provided services 125
4.9 Switched telephone lines 126
4.9.1 General 126
4.9.2 Technical details 126
4.9.3 DC pulses 128
viii Contents
4.9.4 Dual tone multifrequency — DTMF 128
4.10 Analog tie lines 128
4.10.1 Introduction 128
4.10.2 Four wire E&M tie lines 129
4.10.3 Two wire signaling tie line 130
4.10.4 Four wire direct tie lines 131
4.10.5 Two wire direct tie lines 131
4.11 Analog data services 131
4.11.1 Introduction 132
4.11.2 Point-to-point configuration 132
4.11.3 Point-to-multipoint 132
4.11.4 Digital multipoint 133
4.11.5 Switched network DATEL service 134
4.11.6 Dedicated line DATEL service 134
4.11.7 Additional information 135
4.12 Digital data services 135
4.12.1 General 135
4.12.2 Service details 135
4.13 Packet switched services 136
4.13.1 Introduction 136
4.13.2 X.25 service 138
4.13.3 X.28 services 138
4.13.4 X.32 services 139
4.13.5 Frame relay 139
4.14 ISDN 139
4.15 ATM 141
5 Local area network systems 142
5.1 Introduction 142
5.2 Network topologies 143
5.2.1 Bus topology 143
5.2.2 Bus topology advantages 144
5.2.3 Bus topology disadvantages 144
5.2.4 Star topology 144
5.2.5 Ring topology 145
5.3 Media access methods 146
5.3.1 Contention systems 146
5.3.2 Token passing 147
5.4 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 147
5.4.1 Ethernet types 148
5.4.2 10Base5 systems 148
5.4.3 10Base2 systems 150
5.4.4 10BaseT 151
5.4.5 10BaseF 153
Contents ix
5.4.6 10Broad36 153
5.4.7 1Base5 153
5.4.8 Collisions 153
5.5 MAC frame format 154
5.6 High-speed Ethernet systems 155
5.6.1 Cabling limitations 155
5.7 100Base-T (100Base-TX, T4, FX, T2) 156
5.7.1 Fast Ethernet overview 156
5.7.2 100Base-TX and FX 157
5.7.3 100BASE-T4 157
5.7.4 100Base-T2 158
5.7.5 100Base-T hubs 158
5.7.6 100Base-T adapters 159
5.8 Fast Ethernet design considerations 159
5.8.1 UTP Cabling distances 100Base-TX/T4 159
5.8.2 Fiber optic cable distances 100Base-FX 159
5.8.3 100Base-T repeater rules 160
5.9 Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-T 160
5.9.1 Gigabit Ethernet summary 160
5.9.2 Gigabit Ethernet MAC layer 161
5.9.3 1000Base-SX for horizontal fiber 162
5.9.4 1000Base-LX for vertical backbone cabling 163
5.9.5 1000Base-CX for copper cabling 163
5.9.6 1000Base-T for category 5 UTP 163
5.9.7 Gigabit Ethernet full-duplex repeaters 163
5.10 Network interconnection components 164
5.10.1 Repeaters 164
5.10.2 Bridges 165
5.10.3 Router 165
5.10.4 Gateways 166
5.10.5 Hubs 166
5.10.6 Switches 167
5.11 TCP/IP protocols 169
5.11.1 The TCP/IP protocol structure 170
5.11.2 Routing in an Internet 170
5.11.3 Transmission control protocol (TCP) 171
5.12 SCADA and the Internet 172
5.12.1 Use of the Internet for SCADA systems 173
5.12.2 Thin client solutions 173
5.12.3 Security concerns 174
5.12.4 Other issues 175
5.12.5 Conclusion 175
x Contents
6 Modems 176
6.1 Introduction 176
6.2 Review of the modem 176
6.2.1 Synchronous or asynchronous 178
6.2.2 Modes of operation 179
6.2.3 Components of a modem 180
6.2.4 Modem receiver 180
6.2.5 Modem transmitter 181
6.3 The RS-232/RS-422/RS-485 interface standards 182
6.3.1 The RS-232-C interface standard for serial data communication 182
6.3.2 Electrical signal characteristics 183
6.3.3 Interface mechanical characteristics 185
6.3.4 Functional description of the interchange circuits 185
6.3.5 The sequence of asynchronous operation of the RS-232 interface 186
6.3.6 Synchronous communications 187
6.3.7 Disadvantages of the RS-232 standard 188
6.3.8 The RS-422 interface standard for serial data communications 188
6.3.9 The RS-485 interface standard for serial data communications 190
6.4 Flow control 191
6.5 Modulation techniques 191
6.5.1 Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) 192
6.5.2 Frequency modulation (or frequency shift keying — FSK) 192
6.5.3 Phase modulation (or phase shift keying (PSK)) 192
6.5.4 Quadrature amplitude modulation (or QAM) 193
6.5.5 Trellis coding 194
6.5.6 DFM (direct frequency modulation) 195
6.6 Error detection/correction and data compression 196
6.6.1 MNP protocol classes 196
6.6.2 Link access protocol modem (LAP-M) 197
6.6.3 Data compression techniques 198
6.7 Data rate versus baud rate 201
6.8 Modem standards 202
6.9 Radio modems 203
6.10 Troubleshooting the system 207
6.10.1 Troubleshooting the serial link 207
6.10.2 The breakout box 208
6.10.3 Protocol analyzer 208
6.10.4 Troubleshooting the modem 209
6.11 Selection considerations 210
7 Central site computer facilities 212
7.1 Introduction 212
7.2 Recommended installation practice 212
7.2.1 Environmental considerations 212
Contents xi
7.2.2 Earthing and shielding 213
7.2.3 Cabling 213
7.2.4 Power connections 214
7.3 Ergonomic requirements 215
7.3.1 Typical control room layout 215
7.3.2 Lighting 216
7.3.3 Sound environment 216
7.3.4 Ventilation 216
7.3.5 Colors of equipment 217
7.4 Design of the computer displays 217
7.4.1 Operator displays and graphics 218
7.4.2 Design of screens 219
7.5 Alarming and reporting philosophies 220
8 Troubleshooting and maintenance 223
8.1 Introduction 223
8.2 Troubleshooting the telemetry system 225
8.2.1 The RTU and component modules 225
8.2.2 The master sites 227
8.2.3 The central site 227
8.2.4 The operator station and software 227
8.3 Maintenance tasks 228
8.4 The maintenance unit system 230
9 Specification of systems 232
9.1 Introduction 232
9.2 Common pitfalls 232
9.3 Standards 233
9.4 Performance criteria 233
9.5 Testing 233
9.6 Documentation 234
9.7 Future trends in technology 234
9.7.1 Software based instrumentation 234
9.7.2 Future trends in SCADA systems 235

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Cover BukuKepengen belajar tentang SCADA? Ada baiknya sahabat download buku ini SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) For Industry Klik Disini. Untuk membaca online silahkan Klik Disini. Buku ini berisikan 298 halaman.  Buku ini bisa dijadikan sebagai reference bagi sahabat yang lagi nyusun skripsi (Tugas Akhir) khususnya bidang engineering.

Semoga bermanfaat.

Daftar isi buku ini:

1 Background to SCADA 1
1.1 Introduction and brief history of SCADA 1
1.2 Fundamental principles of modern SCADA systems 2
1.3 SCADA hardware 4
1.4 SCADA software 5
1.5 Landlines for SCADA 6
1.6 SCADA and local area networks 7
1.7 Modem use in SCADA systems 7
1.8 Computer sites and troubleshooting 8
1.9 System implementation 9
2 SCADA systems, hardware and firmware 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Comparison of the terms SCADA, DCS, PLC and smart instrument 12
2.2.1 SCADA system 12
2.2.2 Distributed control system (DCS) 15
2.2.3 Programmable logic controller (PLC) 15
2.2.4 Smart instrument 16
2.2.5 Considerations and benefits of SCADA system 17
2.3 Remote terminal units 17
2.3.1 Control processor (or CPU) 19
2.3.2 Analog input modules 19
2.3.3 Typical analog input modules 26
2.3.4 Analog outputs 27
2.3.5 Digital inputs 28
2.3.6 Counter or accumulator digital inputs 29
2.3.7 Digital output module 31
2.3.8 Mixed analog and digital modules 33
2.3.9 Communication interfaces 33
2.3.10 Power supply module for RTU 33
2.3.11 RTU environmental enclosures 33
2.3.12 Testing and maintenance 34
2.3.13 Typical requirements for an RTU system 35
2.4 Application programs 36
2.5 PLCs used as RTUs 36
2.5.1 PLC software 37
2.5.2 Basic rules of ladder-logic 38
2.5.3 The different ladder-logic instructions 40
2.6 The master station 46
2.6.1 Master station software 48
vi Contents
2.6.2 System SCADA software 48
2.6.3 Local area networks 48
2.6.4 Ethernet 49
2.6.5 Token ring LANs 51
2.6.6 Token bus network 52
2.7 System reliability and availability 52
2.7.1 Redundant master station configuration 52
2.8 Communication architectures and philosophies 54
2.8.1 Communication architectures 54
2.8.2 Communication philosophies 56
2.8.3 Polled (or master slave) 56
2.8.4 CSMA/CD system (peer-to-peer) 59
2.9 Typical considerations in configuration of a master station 61
3 SCADA systems software and protocols 64
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 The components of a SCADA system 64
3.2.1 SCADA key features 65
3.3 The SCADA software package 67
3.3.1 Redundancy 70
3.3.2 System response time 72
3.3.3 Expandability of the system 72
3.4 Specialized SCADA protocols 72
3.4.1 Introduction to protocols 73
3.4.2 Information transfer 74
3.4.3 High level data link control (HDLC) protocol 78
3.4.4 The CSMA/CD protocol format 80
3.4.5 Standards activities 81
3.5 Error detection 82
3.5.1 Causes of errors 83
3.5.2 Feedback error control 84
3.6 Distributed network protocol 87
3.6.1 Introduction 87
3.6.2 Interoperability 87
3.6.3 Open standard 87
3.6.4 IEC and IEEE 88
3.6.5 SCADA 88
3.6.6 Development 88
3.6.7 Physical layer 88
3.6.8 Physical topologies 88
3.6.9 Modes 89
3.6.10 Datalink layer 92
3.6.11 Transport layer (pseudo-transport) 96
3.6.12 Application layer 97
Contents vii
3.6.13 Conclusion 97
3.7 New technologies in SCADA systems 97
3.7.1 Rapid improvement in LAN technology for master stations 97
3.7.2 Man machine interface 97
3.7.3 Remote terminal units 98
3.7.4 Communications 98
3.8 The twelve golden rules 98
4 Landlines 100
4.1 Introduction 100
4.2 Background to cables 100
4.3 Definition of interference and noise on cables 101
4.4 Sources of interference and noise on cables 102
4.4.1 Electrostatic coupling 103
4.4.2 Magnetic coupling 104
4.4.3 Impedance coupling 105
4.5 Practical methods of reducing noise and interference on cables 107
4.5.1 Shielding and twisting wires 107
4.5.2 Cable spacing 108
4.5.3 Tray spacing 110
4.5.4 Earthing and grounding requirements 111
4.5.5 Specific areas to focus on 111
4.6 Types of cables 112
4.6.1 General cable characteristics 112
4.6.2 Two wire open lines 114
4.6.3 Twisted pair cables 114
4.6.4 Coaxial cables 116
4.6.5 Fiber optics 116
4.6.6 Theory of operation 116
4.6.7 Modes of propagation 118
4.6.8 Specification of cables 120
4.6.9 Joining cables 120
4.6.10 Limitations of cables 121
4.7 Privately owned cables 121
4.7.1 Telephone quality cables 121
4.7.2 Data quality twisted pair cables 122
4.7.3 Local area networks (LANs) 122
4.7.4 Multiplexers (bandwidth managers) 122
4.7.5 Assessment of existing copper cables 125
4.8 Public network provided services 125
4.9 Switched telephone lines 126
4.9.1 General 126
4.9.2 Technical details 126
4.9.3 DC pulses 128
viii Contents
4.9.4 Dual tone multifrequency — DTMF 128
4.10 Analog tie lines 128
4.10.1 Introduction 128
4.10.2 Four wire E&M tie lines 129
4.10.3 Two wire signaling tie line 130
4.10.4 Four wire direct tie lines 131
4.10.5 Two wire direct tie lines 131
4.11 Analog data services 131
4.11.1 Introduction 132
4.11.2 Point-to-point configuration 132
4.11.3 Point-to-multipoint 132
4.11.4 Digital multipoint 133
4.11.5 Switched network DATEL service 134
4.11.6 Dedicated line DATEL service 134
4.11.7 Additional information 135
4.12 Digital data services 135
4.12.1 General 135
4.12.2 Service details 135
4.13 Packet switched services 136
4.13.1 Introduction 136
4.13.2 X.25 service 138
4.13.3 X.28 services 138
4.13.4 X.32 services 139
4.13.5 Frame relay 139
4.14 ISDN 139
4.15 ATM 141
5 Local area network systems 142
5.1 Introduction 142
5.2 Network topologies 143
5.2.1 Bus topology 143
5.2.2 Bus topology advantages 144
5.2.3 Bus topology disadvantages 144
5.2.4 Star topology 144
5.2.5 Ring topology 145
5.3 Media access methods 146
5.3.1 Contention systems 146
5.3.2 Token passing 147
5.4 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 147
5.4.1 Ethernet types 148
5.4.2 10Base5 systems 148
5.4.3 10Base2 systems 150
5.4.4 10BaseT 151
5.4.5 10BaseF 153
Contents ix
5.4.6 10Broad36 153
5.4.7 1Base5 153
5.4.8 Collisions 153
5.5 MAC frame format 154
5.6 High-speed Ethernet systems 155
5.6.1 Cabling limitations 155
5.7 100Base-T (100Base-TX, T4, FX, T2) 156
5.7.1 Fast Ethernet overview 156
5.7.2 100Base-TX and FX 157
5.7.3 100BASE-T4 157
5.7.4 100Base-T2 158
5.7.5 100Base-T hubs 158
5.7.6 100Base-T adapters 159
5.8 Fast Ethernet design considerations 159
5.8.1 UTP Cabling distances 100Base-TX/T4 159
5.8.2 Fiber optic cable distances 100Base-FX 159
5.8.3 100Base-T repeater rules 160
5.9 Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-T 160
5.9.1 Gigabit Ethernet summary 160
5.9.2 Gigabit Ethernet MAC layer 161
5.9.3 1000Base-SX for horizontal fiber 162
5.9.4 1000Base-LX for vertical backbone cabling 163
5.9.5 1000Base-CX for copper cabling 163
5.9.6 1000Base-T for category 5 UTP 163
5.9.7 Gigabit Ethernet full-duplex repeaters 163
5.10 Network interconnection components 164
5.10.1 Repeaters 164
5.10.2 Bridges 165
5.10.3 Router 165
5.10.4 Gateways 166
5.10.5 Hubs 166
5.10.6 Switches 167
5.11 TCP/IP protocols 169
5.11.1 The TCP/IP protocol structure 170
5.11.2 Routing in an Internet 170
5.11.3 Transmission control protocol (TCP) 171
5.12 SCADA and the Internet 172
5.12.1 Use of the Internet for SCADA systems 173
5.12.2 Thin client solutions 173
5.12.3 Security concerns 174
5.12.4 Other issues 175
5.12.5 Conclusion 175
x Contents
6 Modems 176
6.1 Introduction 176
6.2 Review of the modem 176
6.2.1 Synchronous or asynchronous 178
6.2.2 Modes of operation 179
6.2.3 Components of a modem 180
6.2.4 Modem receiver 180
6.2.5 Modem transmitter 181
6.3 The RS-232/RS-422/RS-485 interface standards 182
6.3.1 The RS-232-C interface standard for serial data communication 182
6.3.2 Electrical signal characteristics 183
6.3.3 Interface mechanical characteristics 185
6.3.4 Functional description of the interchange circuits 185
6.3.5 The sequence of asynchronous operation of the RS-232 interface 186
6.3.6 Synchronous communications 187
6.3.7 Disadvantages of the RS-232 standard 188
6.3.8 The RS-422 interface standard for serial data communications 188
6.3.9 The RS-485 interface standard for serial data communications 190
6.4 Flow control 191
6.5 Modulation techniques 191
6.5.1 Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) 192
6.5.2 Frequency modulation (or frequency shift keying — FSK) 192
6.5.3 Phase modulation (or phase shift keying (PSK)) 192
6.5.4 Quadrature amplitude modulation (or QAM) 193
6.5.5 Trellis coding 194
6.5.6 DFM (direct frequency modulation) 195
6.6 Error detection/correction and data compression 196
6.6.1 MNP protocol classes 196
6.6.2 Link access protocol modem (LAP-M) 197
6.6.3 Data compression techniques 198
6.7 Data rate versus baud rate 201
6.8 Modem standards 202
6.9 Radio modems 203
6.10 Troubleshooting the system 207
6.10.1 Troubleshooting the serial link 207
6.10.2 The breakout box 208
6.10.3 Protocol analyzer 208
6.10.4 Troubleshooting the modem 209
6.11 Selection considerations 210
7 Central site computer facilities 212
7.1 Introduction 212
7.2 Recommended installation practice 212
7.2.1 Environmental considerations 212
Contents xi
7.2.2 Earthing and shielding 213
7.2.3 Cabling 213
7.2.4 Power connections 214
7.3 Ergonomic requirements 215
7.3.1 Typical control room layout 215
7.3.2 Lighting 216
7.3.3 Sound environment 216
7.3.4 Ventilation 216
7.3.5 Colors of equipment 217
7.4 Design of the computer displays 217
7.4.1 Operator displays and graphics 218
7.4.2 Design of screens 219
7.5 Alarming and reporting philosophies 220
8 Troubleshooting and maintenance 223
8.1 Introduction 223
8.2 Troubleshooting the telemetry system 225
8.2.1 The RTU and component modules 225
8.2.2 The master sites 227
8.2.3 The central site 227
8.2.4 The operator station and software 227
8.3 Maintenance tasks 228
8.4 The maintenance unit system 230
9 Specification of systems 232
9.1 Introduction 232
9.2 Common pitfalls 232
9.3 Standards 233
9.4 Performance criteria 233
9.5 Testing 233
9.6 Documentation 234
9.7 Future trends in technology 234
9.7.1 Software based instrumentation 234
9.7.2 Future trends in SCADA systems 235

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Pada kenyataannya PLC merupakan suatu mikrokontroller yang digunakan untuk keperluan industri. PLC dapat dikatakan sebagai suatu perangkat keras dan lunak yang dibuat untuk diaplikasikan dalam dunia industri.
Secara umum PLC memiliki bagian-bagian yang sama dengan komputer maupun mikrokontroler, yaitu CPU, Memori dan I/O. Susunan komponen PLC dapat dilihat pada gambar berikut :

Adapun Penjelasan dari komponen-komponen pada PLC adalah Sebagai Berikut :

  1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  2. CPU merupakan bagian utama dan merupakan otak dari PLC.
    CPU ini berfungsi untuk melakukan komunikasi denngan PC atau Consule, interkoneksi pada setiap bagian PLC, mengeksekusi program-program, serta mengatur input dan ouput sistem

  3. Memori
  4. Memori merupakan tempat penyimpan data sementara dan tempat menyimpan program yang harus dijalankan, dimana program tersebut merupakan hasil terjemahan dari ladder diagram yang dibuat oleh user. Sistem memori pada PLC juga mengarah pada teknologi flash memory. Dengan menggunakan flash memory maka akan sangat mudah bagi pengguna untuk melakukan programming maupun reprogramming secara berulang-ulang. Selain itu pada flash memory juga terdapat EPROM yang dapat dihapus berulang-ulang.
    Sistem memori dibagi dalam blok-blok dimana masing-masing blok memiliki fungsi sendiri-sendiri. Beberapa bagian dari memori digunakan untuk menyimpan status dari input dan output, sementara bagian memori yang lain digunakan untuk menyimpan variable yang digunakan pada program seperti nilai timer dan counter.
    PLC memiliki suatu rutin kompleks yang digunakan untuk memstikan memori PLC tidak rusak. Hal ini dapat dilihat lewat lampu indikator pada PLC.

  5. Catu Daya PLC
  6. Catu daya (power supply) digunakan untuk memberikan tegangan pada PLC. Tegangan masukan pada PLC biasanya sekitar 24 VDC atau 220 VAC. Pada PLC yang besar, catu daya biasanya diletakkan terpisah.
    Catu daya tidak digunakan untuk memberikan daya secara langsung ke input maupun output, yang berarti input dan output murni merupakan saklar. Jadi pengguna harus menyediakan sendiri catu daya untuk input dan output pada PLC. Dengan cara ini maka PLC itu tidak akan mudah rusak.

  7. Rangkaian Input PLC
  8. Kemampuan suatu sistem otomatis tergantung pada kemampuan PLC dalam membaca sinyal dari berbagai piranti input, contoh senseor. Untuk mendeteksi suatu proses dibutuhkan sensor yang tepat untuk tiap-tiap kondisi. Sinyal input dapat berupa logika 0 dan 1 (ON dan OFF) ataupun analog.
    Pada Jalur Input terdapat rangkaian antarmuka yang terhubung dengan CPU. Rangkaian ini digunakan untuk menjaga agar sinyal-sinyal yang tidak diinginkan tidak langsung masuk ke dalam CPU. Selain itu juga rangkaian ini berfungsi sebagai tegangan dari sinyal-sinyal input yang memiliki tegangan kerja yang tidak sama dengan CPU agar menjadi sama. Contoh Jika CPU menerima input dari sensor yang memiliki tegangan kerja sebesar 24VDC maka tegangan tersebut harus dikonversi terlebih dahulu mendai 5VDC agar sesuai dengan tegangan kerja CPU.

  9. Rangkaian output PLC
    Suatu sistem otomatis tidak akan lengkap jika sistem tersebut tidak memiliki jalu output. Output sistem ini dapat berupa analog maupun digital. output analog digunakan untuk menghasilkan sinyal analog sedangkan output digital digunakan untuk menghubungkan dan memutuskan jalur, misalnya piranti output yang sering dipakai dalam PLC adalah motor, relai, selenoid, lampu, dan speaker.Seperti pada rangkaian input PLC, pada bagian output PLC juga dibutuhkan suatu antarmuka yang digunakan untuk melindungi CPU dari peralatan eksternal. Antarmuka output PLC sama dengan antarmuka input PLC.
  10. Penambahan I/O PLC
    Setiap PLC pasti memiliki jumlah I/O yang terbatas, yang ditentukan berdasarkan tipe PLC. Namun dalam Aplikasi seringkali I/O yang ada pada PLC tidak mencukupi. Oleh sebab itu diperlukan perangkat tambahan untukmenambah jumlaj I/O yang tersedia. Penambahan jumlah I/O ini dinamakan dengan expansin Unit.

Penjelasan lebih detail mengenai PLC silahkan KLIK DISINI!

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Kini persaingan Industri semakin meningkat, efesiensi produksi umumnya dianggap sebagai kunci untuk sukses. Efesiensi produksi peliputi area yang luas seperti :

1. Kecepatan dimanan peralatan produksi dan line produksi dapat di set untuk membuat suatu produk.
2. Menurunkan biaya material dan upah kerja dari suatu produksi.
3. Meningkatkan kualitas dan menurunkan reject.
4. Meminimalkan downtime dari mesin produksi.
Biaya perawatan produksi murah.

Programable Controller memenuhi kebanyakan dari persyaratan diatas dan merupakan salah satu kunci dalam meningkatkan efesiensi produksi dalam industri.

3679519322.jpgSecara traditional, otomatisasi hanya diterapkan untuk suatu tipe produksi dengan volume yang tinggi. Tetapi kebutuhan ini menuntut otomatisasi dari bermacam-macam produk dalam jumlah sedang, sebagaimana untuk mencapai produktivitas keseluruhan yang lebih tinggi dan memerlukan investasi minimum dalam pabrik dan peralatan.

Sistem Manufaktur Luwes (Fleksible Manufacturing System = FMS) menjawab kebutuhan ini. Sistem ini mencakup peralatan otomatik seperti mesin NC, robot industri, transport otomatik dan produksi yang terkontrol komputer Programable Controller akan banyak dijumpai dalam perlatan industri semacam ini.
Kegunaan PLC
Apa yang dapat dikerjakan oleh PLC (Programable Logic Controller)

1. Kontrol Urutan.
1. Pengganti relay kontrol logik konvensional.
2. Pengganti Timer dan Counter.
3. Pengganti Pengontrol Card P. C. B card.
4. Pengganti Mesin kontrol Auto/ Semi Auto / Manual dan Proses-proses.
2. Kontrol Yang Canggih.
1. Penanganan Operasi Aritmatika ( + , – , x , / ).
2. Penanganan Informasi.<;;/li>
3. Penanganan Kontrol Analog (Suhu, Tekanan, dll).
4. Penanganan PID (Proporsional-Integral-Diferensial).<;/li>
5. Kontrol motor servo.
6. Kontrol motor stepper.
3. Kontrol Pengawasan.
1. ; Proses monitor dan alarm.
2. Monitor dan diagnosa kesalahan.
3. Antarmuka dengan komputer (RS-232C/RS 422).
4. Antarmuka Printer/ASCII.
5. <;li>Jaringan kerja otomatis pabrik. Local area network.
6. Wide area network.
7. ; ;F.A, F.M.S, C.I.M, dll

Keuntungan PLC Pada Otomatisasi
Keuntungan dari penggunaan PLC (Programable Logic Controller) dalam otomatisasi.

1. Waktu implementasi proyek dipersingkat.
2. Modifikasi lebih mudah tanpa biaya tambahan.
3. Biaya Proyek dapat dikalkulasi dengan akurat.
4. Training penguasaan lebih cepat.
5. Perancangan dengan mudah diubah dengan software, perubahan dan penambahan dapat dilakukan dengan software.
6. Aplikasi kontrol yang luas.
7. Maintenance yang mudah. Indkator Input dan Output dengan cepat dan mudah dapat diketahui pada sebuah system. Konfigurasi output dengan tipe relay plug in.
8. Keandalan tinggi.
9. Perangkat kontroller standart.
10. Dapat menerima kondisi lingkungan industri yang berat.

Hal Penting dalam menggunakan PLC (Programable Logic Controller)

1. Input
1. Jumlah Input.
2. Tipe Input.
2. Output.
1. Jumlah Output.
2. Tipe Output.
3. Memori.
1. RAM (Random Access Memory).
Informasi dalam memori ini dapat dibaca dan ditulis.
2. EPROM (Eraseble Programable Read Only Memory).
EPROM adalah PROM khusus yang dapat diprogram dengan Eprom Writer.
3. EEPROM (Electrical Eraseble Programable Read Only Memory).
Memungkinkan penyimpanan yang permanen sekaligus dapat diubah dengan mudah.
4. Peripheral.
1. handheld programing console.
2. LSS (Ladder Support Software) / SSS ( SYSMAC Support Software).
3. PROM Writer

Waktu Scan
Proses pembacaan dari input, mengeksekusi program dan memperbaharui output disebut scaning. Waktu scan umumya konstant dan proses sekuensial dari pembacaa status input, mengevaluasi logika kontrol dan memperbaharui ouput. Spesifikasi waktu scan menunjukkan seberapa cepat kontroler dapat bereaksi terhadap input.
Faktor Waktu Scan
Faktor Yang Mempengaharui Waktu Scan
Waktu yang diperlukan untuk membuat suatu scan bervariasi antara 1 milidetik sampai 30 milidetik. Waktu scan tergantung dari panjang program. Penggunaan subsistem remote I/O juga menaikkan waktu scan karena harus mentransfer I/O update ke subsistem remote. Monitoring dari kontrol program juga menambah waktu overhead dari scan karena harus mengirim status dari coil dan contact ke peralatan pheriperal.

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Mengenal Hardware PLC

Tahukah anda perangkat keras (Hardware PLC) ??

Secara umum hardware PLC terbagi menjadi beberapa bagian diantaranya:

  1. Power Supply (PS)
  2. CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  3. Digital Input Module
  4. Digital Output Module
  5. Analog Input Module
  6. Analog Output Module
  7. Communication Module (Remote I/O)
  8. Special Module (Ex. Weighing / Timbangan Module, Counter, Axis dll).

Bagi yang belum tahu PLC, lihat di bawah ini.

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Untuk membaca lebih lengkap mengenai RSEmulator 5000. Silahkan Klik DISINI!

Tahukah anda, Apakah RSEmulator 5000?

RSEmulator 5000 adalah software yang dikeluarkan oleh Rockwell Automation untuk Simulasi PLC menggunakan software (internal PC). Software ini dilink dengan RSLogix 5000 menggunakan RSLinx.

Untuk jelasnya mendingan baca deh ….. Silahkan Klik DISINI!

Dibawah ini sedikit informasi mengenai RSEmulator.

——————–
RSlogix Emulate 5000 ReadMe.txt File, 20-JAN-2007

*******************************************************
*WARNING: Do not depend on the emulator to match your *
*physical controller’s performance or operation. Some *
*instructions are interpreted differently in the *
*emulator than in a physical controller, and the *
*execution times for instructions and program files *
*will be significantly different in an emulated *
*controller than in a physical controller. *
*******************************************************

This readme file contains information on the following:
* System Requirements
* Product Revision Information
* Installation Procedure
* Technical Information
* Contact Information

System Requirements
Base Platform Requirements:
Intel Pentium 4 1.6GHz (single core, dual-core, and hyperthreaded CPUs are supported)
A minimum of 256 Mb of RAM
150 Mb of hard disk space free
800 X 600 video resolution
Any Windows-compatible pointing device

Operating System:
Microsoft Windows 2000 with Service Pack 4 (recommended)
Microsoft Windows XP with Service Pack 1 or higher (recommended)
Microsoft Windows 2003 Server

Product Revision Information
RSLogix Emulate 5000 Version 16.00.00 requires the following:

Software Product Compatible Versions:
RSLinx 2.51.00 or higher
Any RSLogix 5000 version from Version 12 through 16

Installation Procedure
Product Installation:
Begin the installation of the product by running the setup.exe file
located at the root of the CD media. This will launch a CD browser that
provides a means to install the RSLogix Emulate 5000 product, and
also displays pertinent product information.

Please use the “Add/Remove Programs” applet in control panel to remove
previous versions of SoftLogix5800. While performing an install or uninstall,
please note any messages that recommend a system reboot. Failure to follow
the reboot instructions can render your installation inoperable.

If you want to reinstall the same vesion as is currently installed, please use the
“Add/Remove Programs” applet in control panel to remove the existing version of
RSLogix Emulate 5000. While performing an install or uninstall, please note any
messages that recommend a system reboot. Failure to follow the reboot instructions
can render your installation inoperable.

Please refer to the RSLogix Emulate 5000 Getting Results Guide for details on
installing this product. This document can be viewed with the Adobe Acrobat
Reader by opening the file LGEM5K-GR016A-EN-P.pdf located at
\Documentation on the RSLogix Emulate 5000 CD.

IMPORTANT NOTES:
RSLogix Emulate 5000 cannot be installed on any machine that already has
SoftLogix5800 installed on it.

RSLinx Classic should be installed before installing the RSLogix Emulate 5000
product.

If RSLinx Classic is installed after RSLogix Emulate 5000, please run the
SIRegEDS.exe program that can be found in the RSEMU5000 directory on the
installation CD. After the products are installed, you must first add the
Virtual Backplane driver in RSLinx Classic in order to connect to the
SoftLogix engine.

Even if you plan to remotely program the controller over a ControlNet or
Ethernet link, you must add the Virtual Backplane driver via RSLinx Classic
software. If you do not, persistent storage will not function and when you
reboot the computer, the controller will come up with cleared memory (the
program will not get re-loaded).

Data Execution Prevention (a feature of Microsoft Windows also known as DEP) is
not supported by RSLogix Emulate 5000. If your computer’s CPU supports DEP, we
advise using DEP for only essential Windows programs and services. (This is the
default setting for Windows XP; for Windows Server 2003, DEP is on by default
for all programs and services.) If DEP is turned on for RSLogix Emulate 5000,
you may experience unexpected results. See your Windows documentation for
information regarding DEP.

Jump to Subroutine (JSR) instructions do execute in the emulator. However,
the instruction passes parameters to subroutines in reverse order from the
order in a physical controller (the last parameter is passed first in an
emulated controller). Do not use JSR instructions in a manner where the
order in which parameters are passed to a subroutine matters.

Technical Information
Refer to the RSLogix Emulate 5000 Getting Results Guide for more information about using
this product. This document can be viewed with the Adobe Acrobat Reader by opening the
file LGEM5K-GR016A-EN-P.pdf located at \Documentation on the RSLogix
Emulate 5000 CD.

Contact Information
If you have any problems installing or running this software, please contact:

Rockwell Automation Technical Support
Phone: 440-646-5800
WEB: support.rockwellautomation.com

Read Full Post »

Untuk membaca lebih lengkap mengenai RSEmulator 5000. Silahkan Klik DISINI!

Tahukah anda, Apakah RSEmulator 5000?

RSEmulator 5000 adalah software yang dikeluarkan oleh Rockwell Automation untuk Simulasi PLC menggunakan software (internal PC). Software ini dilink dengan RSLogix 5000 menggunakan RSLinx.

Untuk jelasnya mendingan baca deh ….. Silahkan Klik DISINI!

Dibawah ini sedikit informasi mengenai RSEmulator.

——————–
RSlogix Emulate 5000 ReadMe.txt File, 20-JAN-2007

*******************************************************
*WARNING: Do not depend on the emulator to match your *
*physical controller’s performance or operation. Some *
*instructions are interpreted differently in the *
*emulator than in a physical controller, and the *
*execution times for instructions and program files *
*will be significantly different in an emulated *
*controller than in a physical controller. *
*******************************************************

This readme file contains information on the following:
* System Requirements
* Product Revision Information
* Installation Procedure
* Technical Information
* Contact Information

System Requirements
Base Platform Requirements:
Intel Pentium 4 1.6GHz (single core, dual-core, and hyperthreaded CPUs are supported)
A minimum of 256 Mb of RAM
150 Mb of hard disk space free
800 X 600 video resolution
Any Windows-compatible pointing device

Operating System:
Microsoft Windows 2000 with Service Pack 4 (recommended)
Microsoft Windows XP with Service Pack 1 or higher (recommended)
Microsoft Windows 2003 Server

Product Revision Information
RSLogix Emulate 5000 Version 16.00.00 requires the following:

Software Product Compatible Versions:
RSLinx 2.51.00 or higher
Any RSLogix 5000 version from Version 12 through 16

Installation Procedure
Product Installation:
Begin the installation of the product by running the setup.exe file
located at the root of the CD media. This will launch a CD browser that
provides a means to install the RSLogix Emulate 5000 product, and
also displays pertinent product information.

Please use the “Add/Remove Programs” applet in control panel to remove
previous versions of SoftLogix5800. While performing an install or uninstall,
please note any messages that recommend a system reboot. Failure to follow
the reboot instructions can render your installation inoperable.

If you want to reinstall the same vesion as is currently installed, please use the
“Add/Remove Programs” applet in control panel to remove the existing version of
RSLogix Emulate 5000. While performing an install or uninstall, please note any
messages that recommend a system reboot. Failure to follow the reboot instructions
can render your installation inoperable.

Please refer to the RSLogix Emulate 5000 Getting Results Guide for details on
installing this product. This document can be viewed with the Adobe Acrobat
Reader by opening the file LGEM5K-GR016A-EN-P.pdf located at
\Documentation on the RSLogix Emulate 5000 CD.

IMPORTANT NOTES:
RSLogix Emulate 5000 cannot be installed on any machine that already has
SoftLogix5800 installed on it.

RSLinx Classic should be installed before installing the RSLogix Emulate 5000
product.

If RSLinx Classic is installed after RSLogix Emulate 5000, please run the
SIRegEDS.exe program that can be found in the RSEMU5000 directory on the
installation CD. After the products are installed, you must first add the
Virtual Backplane driver in RSLinx Classic in order to connect to the
SoftLogix engine.

Even if you plan to remotely program the controller over a ControlNet or
Ethernet link, you must add the Virtual Backplane driver via RSLinx Classic
software. If you do not, persistent storage will not function and when you
reboot the computer, the controller will come up with cleared memory (the
program will not get re-loaded).

Data Execution Prevention (a feature of Microsoft Windows also known as DEP) is
not supported by RSLogix Emulate 5000. If your computer’s CPU supports DEP, we
advise using DEP for only essential Windows programs and services. (This is the
default setting for Windows XP; for Windows Server 2003, DEP is on by default
for all programs and services.) If DEP is turned on for RSLogix Emulate 5000,
you may experience unexpected results. See your Windows documentation for
information regarding DEP.

Jump to Subroutine (JSR) instructions do execute in the emulator. However,
the instruction passes parameters to subroutines in reverse order from the
order in a physical controller (the last parameter is passed first in an
emulated controller). Do not use JSR instructions in a manner where the
order in which parameters are passed to a subroutine matters.

Technical Information
Refer to the RSLogix Emulate 5000 Getting Results Guide for more information about using
this product. This document can be viewed with the Adobe Acrobat Reader by opening the
file LGEM5K-GR016A-EN-P.pdf located at \Documentation on the RSLogix
Emulate 5000 CD.

Contact Information
If you have any problems installing or running this software, please contact:

Rockwell Automation Technical Support
Phone: 440-646-5800
WEB: support.rockwellautomation.com

Read Full Post »

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