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This is the introduction to PLCs for which baffled students, technicians and managers have been waiting. In this straightforward, easy-to-read guide, Bill Bolton has kept the jargon to a minimum, considered all the programming methods in the standard IEC 1131-3 – in particular ladder programming, and presented the subject in a way that is not device specific to ensure maximum applicability to courses in electronics and control systems.

Now in its fourth edition, this best-selling text has been expanded with increased coverage of industrial systems and PLCs and more consideration has been given to IEC 1131-3 and all the programming methods in the standard. The new edition brings the book fully up to date with the current developments in PLCs, describing new and important applications such as PLC use in communications (e.g. Ethernet an extremely popular system), and safety in particular proprietary emergency stop relays (now appearing in practically every PLC based system).

The coverage of commonly used PLCs has been increased, including the ever popular Allen Bradley PLCs, making this book an essential source of information both for professionals wishing to update their knowledge, as well as students who require a straight forward introduction to this area of control engineering.

Having read this book, readers will be able to:
* Identify the main design characteristics and internal architecture of PLCs
* Describe and identify the characteristics of commonly used input and output devices
* Explain the processing of inputs and outputs of PLCs
* Describe communication links involved with control systems
* Develop ladder programs for the logic functions AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOT and XOR
* Develop functional block, instruction list, structured text and sequential function chart programs
* Develop programs using internal relays, timers, counters, shift registers, sequencers and data handling
* Identify safety issues with PLC systems
* Identify methods used for fault diagnosis, testing and debugging programs

Fully matched to the requirements of BTEC Higher Nationals, students are able to check their learning and understanding as they work through the text using the Problems section at the end of each chapter. Complete answers are provided in the back of the book.

* Thoroughly practical introduction to PLC use and application – not device specific, ensuring relevance to a wide range of courses
* New edition expanded with increased coverage of IEC 1131-3, industrial control scenarios and communications – an important aspect of PLC use
* Problems included at the end of each chapter, with a complete set of answers given at the back of the book

Rincian lebih lanjut

Programmable Logic Controllers: an introduction
Oleh W. Bolton
Diterbitkan oleh Newnes, 2006
ISBN 0750681128, 9780750681124
304 halaman

Baca? Klik DISINI!

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TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. The TCP/IP suite of protocols has become a dominant technology due to its widespread use and reliability, while Ethernet is fast becoming a de facto industrial networking standard.

Rincian lebih lanjut

Practical TCP/IP and Ethernet Networking
Oleh Deon Reynders, Edwin Wright
Diterbitkan oleh Newnes, 2003
ISBN 0750658061, 9780750658065
306 halaman

Silahkan KLIK DISINI! untuk membaca bukunya.

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Kepengen belajar tentang SCADA? Ada baiknya sahabat download buku ini SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) For Industry Klik Disini.

Buku ini berisikan 298 halaman. Berikut ini daftar isi dari buku tersebut:

1 Background to SCADA 1
1.1 Introduction and brief history of SCADA 1
1.2 Fundamental principles of modern SCADA systems 2
1.3 SCADA hardware 4
1.4 SCADA software 5
1.5 Landlines for SCADA 6
1.6 SCADA and local area networks 7
1.7 Modem use in SCADA systems 7
1.8 Computer sites and troubleshooting 8
1.9 System implementation 9
2 SCADA systems, hardware and firmware 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Comparison of the terms SCADA, DCS, PLC and smart instrument 12
2.2.1 SCADA system 12
2.2.2 Distributed control system (DCS) 15
2.2.3 Programmable logic controller (PLC) 15
2.2.4 Smart instrument 16
2.2.5 Considerations and benefits of SCADA system 17
2.3 Remote terminal units 17
2.3.1 Control processor (or CPU) 19
2.3.2 Analog input modules 19
2.3.3 Typical analog input modules 26
2.3.4 Analog outputs 27
2.3.5 Digital inputs 28
2.3.6 Counter or accumulator digital inputs 29
2.3.7 Digital output module 31
2.3.8 Mixed analog and digital modules 33
2.3.9 Communication interfaces 33
2.3.10 Power supply module for RTU 33
2.3.11 RTU environmental enclosures 33
2.3.12 Testing and maintenance 34
2.3.13 Typical requirements for an RTU system 35
2.4 Application programs 36
2.5 PLCs used as RTUs 36
2.5.1 PLC software 37
2.5.2 Basic rules of ladder-logic 38
2.5.3 The different ladder-logic instructions 40
2.6 The master station 46
2.6.1 Master station software 48
vi Contents
2.6.2 System SCADA software 48
2.6.3 Local area networks 48
2.6.4 Ethernet 49
2.6.5 Token ring LANs 51
2.6.6 Token bus network 52
2.7 System reliability and availability 52
2.7.1 Redundant master station configuration 52
2.8 Communication architectures and philosophies 54
2.8.1 Communication architectures 54
2.8.2 Communication philosophies 56
2.8.3 Polled (or master slave) 56
2.8.4 CSMA/CD system (peer-to-peer) 59
2.9 Typical considerations in configuration of a master station 61
3 SCADA systems software and protocols 64
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 The components of a SCADA system 64
3.2.1 SCADA key features 65
3.3 The SCADA software package 67
3.3.1 Redundancy 70
3.3.2 System response time 72
3.3.3 Expandability of the system 72
3.4 Specialized SCADA protocols 72
3.4.1 Introduction to protocols 73
3.4.2 Information transfer 74
3.4.3 High level data link control (HDLC) protocol 78
3.4.4 The CSMA/CD protocol format 80
3.4.5 Standards activities 81
3.5 Error detection 82
3.5.1 Causes of errors 83
3.5.2 Feedback error control 84
3.6 Distributed network protocol 87
3.6.1 Introduction 87
3.6.2 Interoperability 87
3.6.3 Open standard 87
3.6.4 IEC and IEEE 88
3.6.5 SCADA 88
3.6.6 Development 88
3.6.7 Physical layer 88
3.6.8 Physical topologies 88
3.6.9 Modes 89
3.6.10 Datalink layer 92
3.6.11 Transport layer (pseudo-transport) 96
3.6.12 Application layer 97
Contents vii
3.6.13 Conclusion 97
3.7 New technologies in SCADA systems 97
3.7.1 Rapid improvement in LAN technology for master stations 97
3.7.2 Man machine interface 97
3.7.3 Remote terminal units 98
3.7.4 Communications 98
3.8 The twelve golden rules 98
4 Landlines 100
4.1 Introduction 100
4.2 Background to cables 100
4.3 Definition of interference and noise on cables 101
4.4 Sources of interference and noise on cables 102
4.4.1 Electrostatic coupling 103
4.4.2 Magnetic coupling 104
4.4.3 Impedance coupling 105
4.5 Practical methods of reducing noise and interference on cables 107
4.5.1 Shielding and twisting wires 107
4.5.2 Cable spacing 108
4.5.3 Tray spacing 110
4.5.4 Earthing and grounding requirements 111
4.5.5 Specific areas to focus on 111
4.6 Types of cables 112
4.6.1 General cable characteristics 112
4.6.2 Two wire open lines 114
4.6.3 Twisted pair cables 114
4.6.4 Coaxial cables 116
4.6.5 Fiber optics 116
4.6.6 Theory of operation 116
4.6.7 Modes of propagation 118
4.6.8 Specification of cables 120
4.6.9 Joining cables 120
4.6.10 Limitations of cables 121
4.7 Privately owned cables 121
4.7.1 Telephone quality cables 121
4.7.2 Data quality twisted pair cables 122
4.7.3 Local area networks (LANs) 122
4.7.4 Multiplexers (bandwidth managers) 122
4.7.5 Assessment of existing copper cables 125
4.8 Public network provided services 125
4.9 Switched telephone lines 126
4.9.1 General 126
4.9.2 Technical details 126
4.9.3 DC pulses 128
viii Contents
4.9.4 Dual tone multifrequency — DTMF 128
4.10 Analog tie lines 128
4.10.1 Introduction 128
4.10.2 Four wire E&M tie lines 129
4.10.3 Two wire signaling tie line 130
4.10.4 Four wire direct tie lines 131
4.10.5 Two wire direct tie lines 131
4.11 Analog data services 131
4.11.1 Introduction 132
4.11.2 Point-to-point configuration 132
4.11.3 Point-to-multipoint 132
4.11.4 Digital multipoint 133
4.11.5 Switched network DATEL service 134
4.11.6 Dedicated line DATEL service 134
4.11.7 Additional information 135
4.12 Digital data services 135
4.12.1 General 135
4.12.2 Service details 135
4.13 Packet switched services 136
4.13.1 Introduction 136
4.13.2 X.25 service 138
4.13.3 X.28 services 138
4.13.4 X.32 services 139
4.13.5 Frame relay 139
4.14 ISDN 139
4.15 ATM 141
5 Local area network systems 142
5.1 Introduction 142
5.2 Network topologies 143
5.2.1 Bus topology 143
5.2.2 Bus topology advantages 144
5.2.3 Bus topology disadvantages 144
5.2.4 Star topology 144
5.2.5 Ring topology 145
5.3 Media access methods 146
5.3.1 Contention systems 146
5.3.2 Token passing 147
5.4 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 147
5.4.1 Ethernet types 148
5.4.2 10Base5 systems 148
5.4.3 10Base2 systems 150
5.4.4 10BaseT 151
5.4.5 10BaseF 153
Contents ix
5.4.6 10Broad36 153
5.4.7 1Base5 153
5.4.8 Collisions 153
5.5 MAC frame format 154
5.6 High-speed Ethernet systems 155
5.6.1 Cabling limitations 155
5.7 100Base-T (100Base-TX, T4, FX, T2) 156
5.7.1 Fast Ethernet overview 156
5.7.2 100Base-TX and FX 157
5.7.3 100BASE-T4 157
5.7.4 100Base-T2 158
5.7.5 100Base-T hubs 158
5.7.6 100Base-T adapters 159
5.8 Fast Ethernet design considerations 159
5.8.1 UTP Cabling distances 100Base-TX/T4 159
5.8.2 Fiber optic cable distances 100Base-FX 159
5.8.3 100Base-T repeater rules 160
5.9 Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-T 160
5.9.1 Gigabit Ethernet summary 160
5.9.2 Gigabit Ethernet MAC layer 161
5.9.3 1000Base-SX for horizontal fiber 162
5.9.4 1000Base-LX for vertical backbone cabling 163
5.9.5 1000Base-CX for copper cabling 163
5.9.6 1000Base-T for category 5 UTP 163
5.9.7 Gigabit Ethernet full-duplex repeaters 163
5.10 Network interconnection components 164
5.10.1 Repeaters 164
5.10.2 Bridges 165
5.10.3 Router 165
5.10.4 Gateways 166
5.10.5 Hubs 166
5.10.6 Switches 167
5.11 TCP/IP protocols 169
5.11.1 The TCP/IP protocol structure 170
5.11.2 Routing in an Internet 170
5.11.3 Transmission control protocol (TCP) 171
5.12 SCADA and the Internet 172
5.12.1 Use of the Internet for SCADA systems 173
5.12.2 Thin client solutions 173
5.12.3 Security concerns 174
5.12.4 Other issues 175
5.12.5 Conclusion 175
x Contents
6 Modems 176
6.1 Introduction 176
6.2 Review of the modem 176
6.2.1 Synchronous or asynchronous 178
6.2.2 Modes of operation 179
6.2.3 Components of a modem 180
6.2.4 Modem receiver 180
6.2.5 Modem transmitter 181
6.3 The RS-232/RS-422/RS-485 interface standards 182
6.3.1 The RS-232-C interface standard for serial data communication 182
6.3.2 Electrical signal characteristics 183
6.3.3 Interface mechanical characteristics 185
6.3.4 Functional description of the interchange circuits 185
6.3.5 The sequence of asynchronous operation of the RS-232 interface 186
6.3.6 Synchronous communications 187
6.3.7 Disadvantages of the RS-232 standard 188
6.3.8 The RS-422 interface standard for serial data communications 188
6.3.9 The RS-485 interface standard for serial data communications 190
6.4 Flow control 191
6.5 Modulation techniques 191
6.5.1 Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) 192
6.5.2 Frequency modulation (or frequency shift keying — FSK) 192
6.5.3 Phase modulation (or phase shift keying (PSK)) 192
6.5.4 Quadrature amplitude modulation (or QAM) 193
6.5.5 Trellis coding 194
6.5.6 DFM (direct frequency modulation) 195
6.6 Error detection/correction and data compression 196
6.6.1 MNP protocol classes 196
6.6.2 Link access protocol modem (LAP-M) 197
6.6.3 Data compression techniques 198
6.7 Data rate versus baud rate 201
6.8 Modem standards 202
6.9 Radio modems 203
6.10 Troubleshooting the system 207
6.10.1 Troubleshooting the serial link 207
6.10.2 The breakout box 208
6.10.3 Protocol analyzer 208
6.10.4 Troubleshooting the modem 209
6.11 Selection considerations 210
7 Central site computer facilities 212
7.1 Introduction 212
7.2 Recommended installation practice 212
7.2.1 Environmental considerations 212
Contents xi
7.2.2 Earthing and shielding 213
7.2.3 Cabling 213
7.2.4 Power connections 214
7.3 Ergonomic requirements 215
7.3.1 Typical control room layout 215
7.3.2 Lighting 216
7.3.3 Sound environment 216
7.3.4 Ventilation 216
7.3.5 Colors of equipment 217
7.4 Design of the computer displays 217
7.4.1 Operator displays and graphics 218
7.4.2 Design of screens 219
7.5 Alarming and reporting philosophies 220
8 Troubleshooting and maintenance 223
8.1 Introduction 223
8.2 Troubleshooting the telemetry system 225
8.2.1 The RTU and component modules 225
8.2.2 The master sites 227
8.2.3 The central site 227
8.2.4 The operator station and software 227
8.3 Maintenance tasks 228
8.4 The maintenance unit system 230
9 Specification of systems 232
9.1 Introduction 232
9.2 Common pitfalls 232
9.3 Standards 233
9.4 Performance criteria 233
9.5 Testing 233
9.6 Documentation 234
9.7 Future trends in technology 234
9.7.1 Software based instrumentation 234
9.7.2 Future trends in SCADA systems 235

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This is the introduction to PLCs for which baffled students, technicians and managers have been waiting. In this straightforward, easy-to-read guide, Bill Bolton has kept the jargon to a minimum, considered all the programming methods in the standard IEC 1131-3 – in particular ladder programming, and presented the subject in a way that is not device specific to ensure maximum applicability to courses in electronics and control systems.

Now in its fourth edition, this best-selling text has been expanded with increased coverage of industrial systems and PLCs and more consideration has been given to IEC 1131-3 and all the programming methods in the standard. The new edition brings the book fully up to date with the current developments in PLCs, describing new and important applications such as PLC use in communications (e.g. Ethernet an extremely popular system), and safety in particular proprietary emergency stop relays (now appearing in practically every PLC based system).

The coverage of commonly used PLCs has been increased, including the ever popular Allen Bradley PLCs, making this book an essential source of information both for professionals wishing to update their knowledge, as well as students who require a straight forward introduction to this area of control engineering.

Having read this book, readers will be able to:
* Identify the main design characteristics and internal architecture of PLCs
* Describe and identify the characteristics of commonly used input and output devices
* Explain the processing of inputs and outputs of PLCs
* Describe communication links involved with control systems
* Develop ladder programs for the logic functions AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOT and XOR
* Develop functional block, instruction list, structured text and sequential function chart programs
* Develop programs using internal relays, timers, counters, shift registers, sequencers and data handling
* Identify safety issues with PLC systems
* Identify methods used for fault diagnosis, testing and debugging programs

Fully matched to the requirements of BTEC Higher Nationals, students are able to check their learning and understanding as they work through the text using the Problems section at the end of each chapter. Complete answers are provided in the back of the book.

* Thoroughly practical introduction to PLC use and application – not device specific, ensuring relevance to a wide range of courses
* New edition expanded with increased coverage of IEC 1131-3, industrial control scenarios and communications – an important aspect of PLC use
* Problems included at the end of each chapter, with a complete set of answers given at the back of the book

Rincian lebih lanjut

Programmable Logic Controllers: an introduction
Oleh W. Bolton
Diterbitkan oleh Newnes, 2006
ISBN 0750681128, 9780750681124
304 halaman

Baca? Klik DISINI!

Read Full Post »

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP uses several protocols, the two main ones being TCP and IP. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and is used by the Internet, making it the de facto standard for transmitting data over networks. The TCP/IP suite of protocols has become a dominant technology due to its widespread use and reliability, while Ethernet is fast becoming a de facto industrial networking standard.

Rincian lebih lanjut

Practical TCP/IP and Ethernet Networking
Oleh Deon Reynders, Edwin Wright
Diterbitkan oleh Newnes, 2003
ISBN 0750658061, 9780750658065
306 halaman

Silahkan KLIK DISINI! untuk membaca bukunya.

Read Full Post »

Kepengen belajar tentang SCADA? Ada baiknya sahabat download buku ini SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) For Industry Klik Disini.

Buku ini berisikan 298 halaman. Berikut ini daftar isi dari buku tersebut:

1 Background to SCADA 1
1.1 Introduction and brief history of SCADA 1
1.2 Fundamental principles of modern SCADA systems 2
1.3 SCADA hardware 4
1.4 SCADA software 5
1.5 Landlines for SCADA 6
1.6 SCADA and local area networks 7
1.7 Modem use in SCADA systems 7
1.8 Computer sites and troubleshooting 8
1.9 System implementation 9
2 SCADA systems, hardware and firmware 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Comparison of the terms SCADA, DCS, PLC and smart instrument 12
2.2.1 SCADA system 12
2.2.2 Distributed control system (DCS) 15
2.2.3 Programmable logic controller (PLC) 15
2.2.4 Smart instrument 16
2.2.5 Considerations and benefits of SCADA system 17
2.3 Remote terminal units 17
2.3.1 Control processor (or CPU) 19
2.3.2 Analog input modules 19
2.3.3 Typical analog input modules 26
2.3.4 Analog outputs 27
2.3.5 Digital inputs 28
2.3.6 Counter or accumulator digital inputs 29
2.3.7 Digital output module 31
2.3.8 Mixed analog and digital modules 33
2.3.9 Communication interfaces 33
2.3.10 Power supply module for RTU 33
2.3.11 RTU environmental enclosures 33
2.3.12 Testing and maintenance 34
2.3.13 Typical requirements for an RTU system 35
2.4 Application programs 36
2.5 PLCs used as RTUs 36
2.5.1 PLC software 37
2.5.2 Basic rules of ladder-logic 38
2.5.3 The different ladder-logic instructions 40
2.6 The master station 46
2.6.1 Master station software 48
vi Contents
2.6.2 System SCADA software 48
2.6.3 Local area networks 48
2.6.4 Ethernet 49
2.6.5 Token ring LANs 51
2.6.6 Token bus network 52
2.7 System reliability and availability 52
2.7.1 Redundant master station configuration 52
2.8 Communication architectures and philosophies 54
2.8.1 Communication architectures 54
2.8.2 Communication philosophies 56
2.8.3 Polled (or master slave) 56
2.8.4 CSMA/CD system (peer-to-peer) 59
2.9 Typical considerations in configuration of a master station 61
3 SCADA systems software and protocols 64
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 The components of a SCADA system 64
3.2.1 SCADA key features 65
3.3 The SCADA software package 67
3.3.1 Redundancy 70
3.3.2 System response time 72
3.3.3 Expandability of the system 72
3.4 Specialized SCADA protocols 72
3.4.1 Introduction to protocols 73
3.4.2 Information transfer 74
3.4.3 High level data link control (HDLC) protocol 78
3.4.4 The CSMA/CD protocol format 80
3.4.5 Standards activities 81
3.5 Error detection 82
3.5.1 Causes of errors 83
3.5.2 Feedback error control 84
3.6 Distributed network protocol 87
3.6.1 Introduction 87
3.6.2 Interoperability 87
3.6.3 Open standard 87
3.6.4 IEC and IEEE 88
3.6.5 SCADA 88
3.6.6 Development 88
3.6.7 Physical layer 88
3.6.8 Physical topologies 88
3.6.9 Modes 89
3.6.10 Datalink layer 92
3.6.11 Transport layer (pseudo-transport) 96
3.6.12 Application layer 97
Contents vii
3.6.13 Conclusion 97
3.7 New technologies in SCADA systems 97
3.7.1 Rapid improvement in LAN technology for master stations 97
3.7.2 Man machine interface 97
3.7.3 Remote terminal units 98
3.7.4 Communications 98
3.8 The twelve golden rules 98
4 Landlines 100
4.1 Introduction 100
4.2 Background to cables 100
4.3 Definition of interference and noise on cables 101
4.4 Sources of interference and noise on cables 102
4.4.1 Electrostatic coupling 103
4.4.2 Magnetic coupling 104
4.4.3 Impedance coupling 105
4.5 Practical methods of reducing noise and interference on cables 107
4.5.1 Shielding and twisting wires 107
4.5.2 Cable spacing 108
4.5.3 Tray spacing 110
4.5.4 Earthing and grounding requirements 111
4.5.5 Specific areas to focus on 111
4.6 Types of cables 112
4.6.1 General cable characteristics 112
4.6.2 Two wire open lines 114
4.6.3 Twisted pair cables 114
4.6.4 Coaxial cables 116
4.6.5 Fiber optics 116
4.6.6 Theory of operation 116
4.6.7 Modes of propagation 118
4.6.8 Specification of cables 120
4.6.9 Joining cables 120
4.6.10 Limitations of cables 121
4.7 Privately owned cables 121
4.7.1 Telephone quality cables 121
4.7.2 Data quality twisted pair cables 122
4.7.3 Local area networks (LANs) 122
4.7.4 Multiplexers (bandwidth managers) 122
4.7.5 Assessment of existing copper cables 125
4.8 Public network provided services 125
4.9 Switched telephone lines 126
4.9.1 General 126
4.9.2 Technical details 126
4.9.3 DC pulses 128
viii Contents
4.9.4 Dual tone multifrequency — DTMF 128
4.10 Analog tie lines 128
4.10.1 Introduction 128
4.10.2 Four wire E&M tie lines 129
4.10.3 Two wire signaling tie line 130
4.10.4 Four wire direct tie lines 131
4.10.5 Two wire direct tie lines 131
4.11 Analog data services 131
4.11.1 Introduction 132
4.11.2 Point-to-point configuration 132
4.11.3 Point-to-multipoint 132
4.11.4 Digital multipoint 133
4.11.5 Switched network DATEL service 134
4.11.6 Dedicated line DATEL service 134
4.11.7 Additional information 135
4.12 Digital data services 135
4.12.1 General 135
4.12.2 Service details 135
4.13 Packet switched services 136
4.13.1 Introduction 136
4.13.2 X.25 service 138
4.13.3 X.28 services 138
4.13.4 X.32 services 139
4.13.5 Frame relay 139
4.14 ISDN 139
4.15 ATM 141
5 Local area network systems 142
5.1 Introduction 142
5.2 Network topologies 143
5.2.1 Bus topology 143
5.2.2 Bus topology advantages 144
5.2.3 Bus topology disadvantages 144
5.2.4 Star topology 144
5.2.5 Ring topology 145
5.3 Media access methods 146
5.3.1 Contention systems 146
5.3.2 Token passing 147
5.4 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 147
5.4.1 Ethernet types 148
5.4.2 10Base5 systems 148
5.4.3 10Base2 systems 150
5.4.4 10BaseT 151
5.4.5 10BaseF 153
Contents ix
5.4.6 10Broad36 153
5.4.7 1Base5 153
5.4.8 Collisions 153
5.5 MAC frame format 154
5.6 High-speed Ethernet systems 155
5.6.1 Cabling limitations 155
5.7 100Base-T (100Base-TX, T4, FX, T2) 156
5.7.1 Fast Ethernet overview 156
5.7.2 100Base-TX and FX 157
5.7.3 100BASE-T4 157
5.7.4 100Base-T2 158
5.7.5 100Base-T hubs 158
5.7.6 100Base-T adapters 159
5.8 Fast Ethernet design considerations 159
5.8.1 UTP Cabling distances 100Base-TX/T4 159
5.8.2 Fiber optic cable distances 100Base-FX 159
5.8.3 100Base-T repeater rules 160
5.9 Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-T 160
5.9.1 Gigabit Ethernet summary 160
5.9.2 Gigabit Ethernet MAC layer 161
5.9.3 1000Base-SX for horizontal fiber 162
5.9.4 1000Base-LX for vertical backbone cabling 163
5.9.5 1000Base-CX for copper cabling 163
5.9.6 1000Base-T for category 5 UTP 163
5.9.7 Gigabit Ethernet full-duplex repeaters 163
5.10 Network interconnection components 164
5.10.1 Repeaters 164
5.10.2 Bridges 165
5.10.3 Router 165
5.10.4 Gateways 166
5.10.5 Hubs 166
5.10.6 Switches 167
5.11 TCP/IP protocols 169
5.11.1 The TCP/IP protocol structure 170
5.11.2 Routing in an Internet 170
5.11.3 Transmission control protocol (TCP) 171
5.12 SCADA and the Internet 172
5.12.1 Use of the Internet for SCADA systems 173
5.12.2 Thin client solutions 173
5.12.3 Security concerns 174
5.12.4 Other issues 175
5.12.5 Conclusion 175
x Contents
6 Modems 176
6.1 Introduction 176
6.2 Review of the modem 176
6.2.1 Synchronous or asynchronous 178
6.2.2 Modes of operation 179
6.2.3 Components of a modem 180
6.2.4 Modem receiver 180
6.2.5 Modem transmitter 181
6.3 The RS-232/RS-422/RS-485 interface standards 182
6.3.1 The RS-232-C interface standard for serial data communication 182
6.3.2 Electrical signal characteristics 183
6.3.3 Interface mechanical characteristics 185
6.3.4 Functional description of the interchange circuits 185
6.3.5 The sequence of asynchronous operation of the RS-232 interface 186
6.3.6 Synchronous communications 187
6.3.7 Disadvantages of the RS-232 standard 188
6.3.8 The RS-422 interface standard for serial data communications 188
6.3.9 The RS-485 interface standard for serial data communications 190
6.4 Flow control 191
6.5 Modulation techniques 191
6.5.1 Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) 192
6.5.2 Frequency modulation (or frequency shift keying — FSK) 192
6.5.3 Phase modulation (or phase shift keying (PSK)) 192
6.5.4 Quadrature amplitude modulation (or QAM) 193
6.5.5 Trellis coding 194
6.5.6 DFM (direct frequency modulation) 195
6.6 Error detection/correction and data compression 196
6.6.1 MNP protocol classes 196
6.6.2 Link access protocol modem (LAP-M) 197
6.6.3 Data compression techniques 198
6.7 Data rate versus baud rate 201
6.8 Modem standards 202
6.9 Radio modems 203
6.10 Troubleshooting the system 207
6.10.1 Troubleshooting the serial link 207
6.10.2 The breakout box 208
6.10.3 Protocol analyzer 208
6.10.4 Troubleshooting the modem 209
6.11 Selection considerations 210
7 Central site computer facilities 212
7.1 Introduction 212
7.2 Recommended installation practice 212
7.2.1 Environmental considerations 212
Contents xi
7.2.2 Earthing and shielding 213
7.2.3 Cabling 213
7.2.4 Power connections 214
7.3 Ergonomic requirements 215
7.3.1 Typical control room layout 215
7.3.2 Lighting 216
7.3.3 Sound environment 216
7.3.4 Ventilation 216
7.3.5 Colors of equipment 217
7.4 Design of the computer displays 217
7.4.1 Operator displays and graphics 218
7.4.2 Design of screens 219
7.5 Alarming and reporting philosophies 220
8 Troubleshooting and maintenance 223
8.1 Introduction 223
8.2 Troubleshooting the telemetry system 225
8.2.1 The RTU and component modules 225
8.2.2 The master sites 227
8.2.3 The central site 227
8.2.4 The operator station and software 227
8.3 Maintenance tasks 228
8.4 The maintenance unit system 230
9 Specification of systems 232
9.1 Introduction 232
9.2 Common pitfalls 232
9.3 Standards 233
9.4 Performance criteria 233
9.5 Testing 233
9.6 Documentation 234
9.7 Future trends in technology 234
9.7.1 Software based instrumentation 234
9.7.2 Future trends in SCADA systems 235

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Cover BukuKepengen belajar tentang SCADA? Ada baiknya sahabat download buku ini SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) For Industry Klik Disini. Untuk membaca online silahkan Klik Disini. Buku ini berisikan 298 halaman.  Buku ini bisa dijadikan sebagai reference bagi sahabat yang lagi nyusun skripsi (Tugas Akhir) khususnya bidang engineering.

Semoga bermanfaat.

Daftar isi buku ini:

1 Background to SCADA 1
1.1 Introduction and brief history of SCADA 1
1.2 Fundamental principles of modern SCADA systems 2
1.3 SCADA hardware 4
1.4 SCADA software 5
1.5 Landlines for SCADA 6
1.6 SCADA and local area networks 7
1.7 Modem use in SCADA systems 7
1.8 Computer sites and troubleshooting 8
1.9 System implementation 9
2 SCADA systems, hardware and firmware 11
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Comparison of the terms SCADA, DCS, PLC and smart instrument 12
2.2.1 SCADA system 12
2.2.2 Distributed control system (DCS) 15
2.2.3 Programmable logic controller (PLC) 15
2.2.4 Smart instrument 16
2.2.5 Considerations and benefits of SCADA system 17
2.3 Remote terminal units 17
2.3.1 Control processor (or CPU) 19
2.3.2 Analog input modules 19
2.3.3 Typical analog input modules 26
2.3.4 Analog outputs 27
2.3.5 Digital inputs 28
2.3.6 Counter or accumulator digital inputs 29
2.3.7 Digital output module 31
2.3.8 Mixed analog and digital modules 33
2.3.9 Communication interfaces 33
2.3.10 Power supply module for RTU 33
2.3.11 RTU environmental enclosures 33
2.3.12 Testing and maintenance 34
2.3.13 Typical requirements for an RTU system 35
2.4 Application programs 36
2.5 PLCs used as RTUs 36
2.5.1 PLC software 37
2.5.2 Basic rules of ladder-logic 38
2.5.3 The different ladder-logic instructions 40
2.6 The master station 46
2.6.1 Master station software 48
vi Contents
2.6.2 System SCADA software 48
2.6.3 Local area networks 48
2.6.4 Ethernet 49
2.6.5 Token ring LANs 51
2.6.6 Token bus network 52
2.7 System reliability and availability 52
2.7.1 Redundant master station configuration 52
2.8 Communication architectures and philosophies 54
2.8.1 Communication architectures 54
2.8.2 Communication philosophies 56
2.8.3 Polled (or master slave) 56
2.8.4 CSMA/CD system (peer-to-peer) 59
2.9 Typical considerations in configuration of a master station 61
3 SCADA systems software and protocols 64
3.1 Introduction 64
3.2 The components of a SCADA system 64
3.2.1 SCADA key features 65
3.3 The SCADA software package 67
3.3.1 Redundancy 70
3.3.2 System response time 72
3.3.3 Expandability of the system 72
3.4 Specialized SCADA protocols 72
3.4.1 Introduction to protocols 73
3.4.2 Information transfer 74
3.4.3 High level data link control (HDLC) protocol 78
3.4.4 The CSMA/CD protocol format 80
3.4.5 Standards activities 81
3.5 Error detection 82
3.5.1 Causes of errors 83
3.5.2 Feedback error control 84
3.6 Distributed network protocol 87
3.6.1 Introduction 87
3.6.2 Interoperability 87
3.6.3 Open standard 87
3.6.4 IEC and IEEE 88
3.6.5 SCADA 88
3.6.6 Development 88
3.6.7 Physical layer 88
3.6.8 Physical topologies 88
3.6.9 Modes 89
3.6.10 Datalink layer 92
3.6.11 Transport layer (pseudo-transport) 96
3.6.12 Application layer 97
Contents vii
3.6.13 Conclusion 97
3.7 New technologies in SCADA systems 97
3.7.1 Rapid improvement in LAN technology for master stations 97
3.7.2 Man machine interface 97
3.7.3 Remote terminal units 98
3.7.4 Communications 98
3.8 The twelve golden rules 98
4 Landlines 100
4.1 Introduction 100
4.2 Background to cables 100
4.3 Definition of interference and noise on cables 101
4.4 Sources of interference and noise on cables 102
4.4.1 Electrostatic coupling 103
4.4.2 Magnetic coupling 104
4.4.3 Impedance coupling 105
4.5 Practical methods of reducing noise and interference on cables 107
4.5.1 Shielding and twisting wires 107
4.5.2 Cable spacing 108
4.5.3 Tray spacing 110
4.5.4 Earthing and grounding requirements 111
4.5.5 Specific areas to focus on 111
4.6 Types of cables 112
4.6.1 General cable characteristics 112
4.6.2 Two wire open lines 114
4.6.3 Twisted pair cables 114
4.6.4 Coaxial cables 116
4.6.5 Fiber optics 116
4.6.6 Theory of operation 116
4.6.7 Modes of propagation 118
4.6.8 Specification of cables 120
4.6.9 Joining cables 120
4.6.10 Limitations of cables 121
4.7 Privately owned cables 121
4.7.1 Telephone quality cables 121
4.7.2 Data quality twisted pair cables 122
4.7.3 Local area networks (LANs) 122
4.7.4 Multiplexers (bandwidth managers) 122
4.7.5 Assessment of existing copper cables 125
4.8 Public network provided services 125
4.9 Switched telephone lines 126
4.9.1 General 126
4.9.2 Technical details 126
4.9.3 DC pulses 128
viii Contents
4.9.4 Dual tone multifrequency — DTMF 128
4.10 Analog tie lines 128
4.10.1 Introduction 128
4.10.2 Four wire E&M tie lines 129
4.10.3 Two wire signaling tie line 130
4.10.4 Four wire direct tie lines 131
4.10.5 Two wire direct tie lines 131
4.11 Analog data services 131
4.11.1 Introduction 132
4.11.2 Point-to-point configuration 132
4.11.3 Point-to-multipoint 132
4.11.4 Digital multipoint 133
4.11.5 Switched network DATEL service 134
4.11.6 Dedicated line DATEL service 134
4.11.7 Additional information 135
4.12 Digital data services 135
4.12.1 General 135
4.12.2 Service details 135
4.13 Packet switched services 136
4.13.1 Introduction 136
4.13.2 X.25 service 138
4.13.3 X.28 services 138
4.13.4 X.32 services 139
4.13.5 Frame relay 139
4.14 ISDN 139
4.15 ATM 141
5 Local area network systems 142
5.1 Introduction 142
5.2 Network topologies 143
5.2.1 Bus topology 143
5.2.2 Bus topology advantages 144
5.2.3 Bus topology disadvantages 144
5.2.4 Star topology 144
5.2.5 Ring topology 145
5.3 Media access methods 146
5.3.1 Contention systems 146
5.3.2 Token passing 147
5.4 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet 147
5.4.1 Ethernet types 148
5.4.2 10Base5 systems 148
5.4.3 10Base2 systems 150
5.4.4 10BaseT 151
5.4.5 10BaseF 153
Contents ix
5.4.6 10Broad36 153
5.4.7 1Base5 153
5.4.8 Collisions 153
5.5 MAC frame format 154
5.6 High-speed Ethernet systems 155
5.6.1 Cabling limitations 155
5.7 100Base-T (100Base-TX, T4, FX, T2) 156
5.7.1 Fast Ethernet overview 156
5.7.2 100Base-TX and FX 157
5.7.3 100BASE-T4 157
5.7.4 100Base-T2 158
5.7.5 100Base-T hubs 158
5.7.6 100Base-T adapters 159
5.8 Fast Ethernet design considerations 159
5.8.1 UTP Cabling distances 100Base-TX/T4 159
5.8.2 Fiber optic cable distances 100Base-FX 159
5.8.3 100Base-T repeater rules 160
5.9 Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-T 160
5.9.1 Gigabit Ethernet summary 160
5.9.2 Gigabit Ethernet MAC layer 161
5.9.3 1000Base-SX for horizontal fiber 162
5.9.4 1000Base-LX for vertical backbone cabling 163
5.9.5 1000Base-CX for copper cabling 163
5.9.6 1000Base-T for category 5 UTP 163
5.9.7 Gigabit Ethernet full-duplex repeaters 163
5.10 Network interconnection components 164
5.10.1 Repeaters 164
5.10.2 Bridges 165
5.10.3 Router 165
5.10.4 Gateways 166
5.10.5 Hubs 166
5.10.6 Switches 167
5.11 TCP/IP protocols 169
5.11.1 The TCP/IP protocol structure 170
5.11.2 Routing in an Internet 170
5.11.3 Transmission control protocol (TCP) 171
5.12 SCADA and the Internet 172
5.12.1 Use of the Internet for SCADA systems 173
5.12.2 Thin client solutions 173
5.12.3 Security concerns 174
5.12.4 Other issues 175
5.12.5 Conclusion 175
x Contents
6 Modems 176
6.1 Introduction 176
6.2 Review of the modem 176
6.2.1 Synchronous or asynchronous 178
6.2.2 Modes of operation 179
6.2.3 Components of a modem 180
6.2.4 Modem receiver 180
6.2.5 Modem transmitter 181
6.3 The RS-232/RS-422/RS-485 interface standards 182
6.3.1 The RS-232-C interface standard for serial data communication 182
6.3.2 Electrical signal characteristics 183
6.3.3 Interface mechanical characteristics 185
6.3.4 Functional description of the interchange circuits 185
6.3.5 The sequence of asynchronous operation of the RS-232 interface 186
6.3.6 Synchronous communications 187
6.3.7 Disadvantages of the RS-232 standard 188
6.3.8 The RS-422 interface standard for serial data communications 188
6.3.9 The RS-485 interface standard for serial data communications 190
6.4 Flow control 191
6.5 Modulation techniques 191
6.5.1 Amplitude modulation (or amplitude shift keying) 192
6.5.2 Frequency modulation (or frequency shift keying — FSK) 192
6.5.3 Phase modulation (or phase shift keying (PSK)) 192
6.5.4 Quadrature amplitude modulation (or QAM) 193
6.5.5 Trellis coding 194
6.5.6 DFM (direct frequency modulation) 195
6.6 Error detection/correction and data compression 196
6.6.1 MNP protocol classes 196
6.6.2 Link access protocol modem (LAP-M) 197
6.6.3 Data compression techniques 198
6.7 Data rate versus baud rate 201
6.8 Modem standards 202
6.9 Radio modems 203
6.10 Troubleshooting the system 207
6.10.1 Troubleshooting the serial link 207
6.10.2 The breakout box 208
6.10.3 Protocol analyzer 208
6.10.4 Troubleshooting the modem 209
6.11 Selection considerations 210
7 Central site computer facilities 212
7.1 Introduction 212
7.2 Recommended installation practice 212
7.2.1 Environmental considerations 212
Contents xi
7.2.2 Earthing and shielding 213
7.2.3 Cabling 213
7.2.4 Power connections 214
7.3 Ergonomic requirements 215
7.3.1 Typical control room layout 215
7.3.2 Lighting 216
7.3.3 Sound environment 216
7.3.4 Ventilation 216
7.3.5 Colors of equipment 217
7.4 Design of the computer displays 217
7.4.1 Operator displays and graphics 218
7.4.2 Design of screens 219
7.5 Alarming and reporting philosophies 220
8 Troubleshooting and maintenance 223
8.1 Introduction 223
8.2 Troubleshooting the telemetry system 225
8.2.1 The RTU and component modules 225
8.2.2 The master sites 227
8.2.3 The central site 227
8.2.4 The operator station and software 227
8.3 Maintenance tasks 228
8.4 The maintenance unit system 230
9 Specification of systems 232
9.1 Introduction 232
9.2 Common pitfalls 232
9.3 Standards 233
9.4 Performance criteria 233
9.5 Testing 233
9.6 Documentation 234
9.7 Future trends in technology 234
9.7.1 Software based instrumentation 234
9.7.2 Future trends in SCADA systems 235

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