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Below is videos talking about how to use Multimeter. It’s very important even if only basic but always use this tools during we do commissioning or test the circuit. How to use it? Please watch videos below.

Please see on videos just make us more understanding about PLC.

Siemens AGImage via Wikipedia

Premium Studio 2009 provides you with the most important software packages for engineering and runtime for SIMATIC S7/C7, SIMATIC HMI, SIMATIC NET, SINUMERIK und SIMOTION on four data carriers (DVDs). The user can select general settings (e.g. languages for installation, installation path, etc.) and the software packages he requires via a setup specially created for Premium Studio. The installation is then performed automatically (silent), i.e. no further user activities are required. Premium Studio thus provides a significant time and money saving with the installation and maintenance of the software packages. No licenses are included with Premium Studio. For productive operation of the installed software products the user can either use his existing licenses of the versions in question or he must purchase new licenses. Premium Studio 2009 is now available for delivery. 


Product information
Premium Studio will significantly reduce the time and expenses for installation and maintenance of the Siemens Industrial Automation and Siemens Drives Technology software products. This will improve productivity and reduce the overall costs (Total cost of ownership). The benefit to the user increases all the more, the more software products from Siemens Industrial Automation and Siemens Drives Technology are being used.

Fully automatic installation by the Premium Studio Setup

  • One-time selection of the settings required for all software packages, e.g. installation path
  • No further user activities are needed during installation
  • Automatic updating of the existing PG/PC/PCU.50 installations by the products contained on the Premium Studio DVD 

Installation of the selected software in the correct sequence

  • The Premium Studio Setup ensures that any required installation sequences are adhered to.

Reduction of administration and handling (Zero Admin) 

  • Once the software products to be installed have been selected, the installation is performed without any further activities by the user.
  • The selection of the software products to be installed can be recorded by means of a RECORD function. This enables you to perform identical installations on any number of further computers, with a minimum of effort. 
  • The installation can be made from a central computer via the network in this case. The Premium Studio DVDs must either be copied to this central computer or kept in its DVD drive. Installation is then be performed over the network.

Compatibility and interoperability
An extended testing scenario ensures compatibility and interoperability of the product versions contained in Premium Studio. 
Licensing 

By purchasing Premium Studio, the user does not obtain the licenses for the included software products. Before productive use, the required licenses must be purchased through the usual sales channels. However, trial licenses are included for many of the products on the DVDs, with which the software can be tested for a limited period. 
Scope of delivery

The scope of delivery of Premium Studio includes four DVDs (double-layer). These DVDs comprise the individual products listed below. Licenses must be purchased separately as standard products.
Only the versions with their standard licences are listed (Floating or Single License). The upgrade versions of the listed software products can be found on the Siemens Internet Pages or the A&D Mall:
 

Product
Version
Order No.
SIMATIC STEP 7 (Floating License)
V5.4 SP4
6ES7810-4CC08-0YA5
     
Engineering Tools
   
SIMATIC S7-PDIAG (Single License)
V5.3 SP3
6ES7840-0CC04-0YA5
SIMATIC S7-HIGRAPH (Single License)
V5.3 SP1
6ES7811-3CC05-0YA5
SIMATIC S7-SCL (Floating License)
V5.3 SP5
6ES7811-1CC05-0YA5
SIMATIC S7-PLCSIM (Floating License)
V5.4 SP2
6ES7841-0CC05-0YA5
SIMATIC S7-GRAPH (Floating License)
V5.3 SP6
6ES7811-0CC06-0YA5
SIMATIC S7 Distributed Safety (Single License)
V5.4 SP4
6ES7833-1FC02-0YA5
SIMATIC S7 F Configuration Pack V5.5 SP5  
SIMATIC D7 SYS
V7.1
6ES7852-0CC02-0YA5
SIMATIC CFC
V7.1
6ES7658-1EX17-2YA5
SIMATIC Version Trail
V7.1
6ES7658-1FX17-2YA5
SIMATIC Version Cross Manager
V7.1
6ES7658-1CX17-2YA5
SIMATIC Logon
V1.4 SP1
6ES7 658-7BX41-2YA0
SIMATIC PDM
V6.0 SP5
6ES7658-3KX06-0YA5
SIMATIC Modular PID Control FB V5.1 6ES7860-1AA10-0YX0
SIMATIC Modular PID Control Tool V5.1 6ES7830-1AA10-0YX0
SIMATIC Standard PID Control FB  V5.2 6ES7860-2AA21-0YX0
SIMATIC Standard PID Control Tool V5.2 6ES7860-2AA21-0YX0
SIMATIC PID Self Tuner V5.1 6ES7860-4AA01-0YX0
SIMATIC Teleservice Software V6.1 SP2 6ES7842-0CE000YE0
     
Controller    
SIMATIC WinAC RTX 2008 SP1 6ES7 671-0RC06-0YA0
     
Maintenance Station    
SIMATIC Maintenance Station 2009 6ES7840-0WD01-0YA0
SIMATIC Maintenance Station Powerpack 100   6ES7840-0WD11-0YD0
SIMATIC Maintenance Station Powerpack 500   6ES7840-0WD21-0YD0
SIMATIC Maintenance Station Powerpack 1000   6ES7840-0WD31-0YD0
     
Drives
   
Drive ES Basic
V5.4 SP3
6SW1700-5JA00-4AA0
S7-Technology (T-Config)
V4.1 SP1
6ES7864-1CC41-0YX0
SIMOTION Scout
V4.1 SP2
6AU1810-0BA41-0XA0
     
Component-Based Automation
   
SIMATIC iMap
V3.0 SP1
6ES7820-0CC04-0YA5
     
SIMATIC NET Communication Software
   
SIMATIC NET PC products
2008
Ind. Ethernet
SOFTNET-S7 Lean 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1704-1LW71-3AA0
Ind. Ethernet
SOFTNET-S7 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1704-1CW71-3AA0
Ind. Ethernet
SOFTNET-PG 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1704-1PW71-3AA0
PROFIBUS
SOFTNET-S7 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1704-5CW71-3AA0
PROFIBUS
SOFTNET-DP 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1704-5DW71-3AA0
Ind. Ethernet
SNMP OPC Server Basic 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1706-1NW71-3AA0
Ind. Ethernet
SNMP OPC Server Extended 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1706-1NX71-3AA0
PROFIBUS
S7-5613 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1713-5CB71-3AA0
PROFIBUS
DP-5613 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1713-5DB71-3AA0
PROFIBUS
FMS-5613 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1713-5FB71-3AA0
Ind. Ethernet
S7-REDCONNECT 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1716-0HB71-3AA0
Ind. Ethernet
Upgrade S7-REDCONNECT 2008 Powerpack
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1716-0HB71-3AC0
Ind. Ethernet
S7-1613 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1716-1CB71-3AA0
Ind. Ethernet
TF-1613 2008
+ Advanced PC Configuration
 
6GK1716-1TB71-3AA0
     
SIMATIC HMI Software
   
SIMATIC WinCC
V7.0 SP1
 
128 PowerTags (RT 128) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BC07-0AX0
512 PowerTags (RT 512) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BD07-0AX0
2048 PowerTags (RT 2048) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BE07-0AX0
8192 PowerTags (RT 8192) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BH07-0AX0
65536 PowerTags (RT 65536) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BF07-0AX0
102400 PowerTags (RT 102400) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BJ07-0AX0
153600 PowerTags (RT 153600) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BK07-0AX0
262144 PowerTags (RT 262144) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BL07-0AX0
128 PowerTags (RC 128) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BM07-0AX0
512 PowerTags (RC 512) incl. 512 archive variablesn
 
6AV6381-2BN07-0AX0
2048 PowerTags (RC 2048) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BP07-0AX0
8192 PowerTags (RT 8192) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BS07-0AX0
65536 PowerTags (RC 65536) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BQ07-0AX0
102400 PowerTags (RC 102400) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BT07-0AX0
153600 PowerTags (RC 153600) incl. 512 archive variables
 
6AV6381-2BU07-0AX0
262144 PowerTags (RC 262144) incl. 512 Archivvariablen
 
6AV6381-2BV07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Archive 1500
1500 archive variables
 
6AV6371-1DQ17-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Archive 5000
5000 archive variables
 
6AV6371-1DQ17-0BX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Archive 10000
10000 archive variables
 
6AV6371-1DQ17-0CX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Archive 30000
30000 archive variables
 
6AV6371-1DQ17-0EX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Archive 80000
80000 archive variables
 
6AV6371-1DQ17-0GX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Archive 120000
120000 archive variables
 
6AV6371-1DQ17-0JX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Server
 
6AV6371-1CA07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC//Redundancy
 
6AV6371-1CF07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC//User Archives
 
6AV6371-1CB07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/ProAgent
V7.0 SP1
6AV6371-1DG07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Web-Navigator incl. 3 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DH07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Web-Navigator incl. 10 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DH07-0BX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Web-Navigator incl. 25 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DH07-0CX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Web-Navigator incl. 50 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DH07-0DX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Web-Navigator Diagnose Client
V7.0
6AV6371-1DH07-0EX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Web-Navigator Diagnostic Server
V7.0
6AV6371-1DH07-0FX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Connectivity Pack
V7.0
6AV6371-1DR07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/Connectivity Station
V7.0
6AV6371-1DR17-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/DataMonitor incl. 1 Client license
V7.0
6AV6371-1DN07-0LX0
SIMATIC WinCC/DataMonitor incl. 3 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DN07-0AX0
SIMATIC WinCC/DataMonitor incl. 10 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DN07-0BX0
SIMATIC WinCC/DataMonitor incl. 25 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DN07-0CX0
SIMATIC WinCC/DataMonitor incl. 50 Client licenses
V7.0
6AV6371-1DN07-0DX0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible Compact
2008 SP1
6AV6611-0AA51-3CA5
SIMATIC WinCC flexible Standard
2008 SP1
6AV6612-0AA51-3CA5
SIMATIC WinCC flexible Advanced
2008 SP1
6AV6613-0AA51-3CA5
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /ChangeControl for WinCC flexible Compact/Standard/Advanced
2008
6AV6613-6AA01-3AB5
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Sm@rtAccess for SIMATIC Panel
2008
6AV6618-7AB01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Sm@rtAccess for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7AD01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Sm@rtService for SIMATIC Panel
2008
6AV6618-7BB01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Sm@rtService for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7BD01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /OPC-Server for SIMATIC Multi Panel
2008
6AV6618-7CC01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /OPC-Server for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7CD01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Archives for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7ED01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Recipes for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7FD01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Archives+Recipes for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7GD01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible Runtime, 128 Power Tags
2008 SP1
6AV6613-1BA51-3CA0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible Runtime, 512 Power Tags
2008 SP1
6AV6613-1DA51-3CA0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible Runtime, 2048 Power Tags
2008 SP1
6AV6613-1FA51-3CA0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible Runtime, 4096 Power Tags
2008 SP1
6AV6613-1GA51-3CA0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /ProAgent for SIMATIC Panel
2008
6AV6618-7DB01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /ProAgent for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7DD01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Audit for SIMATIC Panel
2008
6AV6618-7HB01-3AB0
SIMATIC WinCC flexible /Audit for WinCC flexible Runtime
2008
6AV6618-7HD01-3AB0
     
SINUMERIK HMI Software
   
SIMATIC STEP7 for SINUMERIK Hardware
V5.4 SP4
6FC5252-5AY01-4AG0
SINUMERIK Toolbox 810D/840D Add-on for STEP7
V5.4 SP4
no separate order no.
TRANSLINE 2000 HMI Pro RT
V7.2.0.5
6FC5263-0PY50-0AG0
TRANSLINE 2000 HMI Pro CS
V7.2.0.5
6FC5263-0PY80-0AG0
HMI Advanced
V7.3 SP3
6FC5253-7BX10-3AG0
SINUMERIK HMI for WinCC flexible
2008
6FC5253-1CX25-3AG0
     
     
A&D Data management
   
A&D DataManagement Agent
V1.2
6BQ3030-1AA00-1AB0
A&D DataManagement Client
V6.1
6BQ3030-1AA20-1AC0
     
Sensors & Communication    
SIMATIC RFID Systems (RF170C)
V1.3.3
6GT2080-2AA10
SIMATIC RF-MANAGER – 1 Reader
2008
6GT2080-3CA00-8AA5
SIMATIC RF-MANAGER – 5 Readers
2008
6GT2080-3CC00-8AA5
SIMATIC RF-MANAGER – 20 Readers
2008
6GT2080-3CE00-8AA5
SINEMA E Lean 2006 SP3 6GK1781-0AA00-6AA0  
SINEMA E Standard 2006 SP3 6GK1782-0AA00-6AA0
     
SIRIUS Tools
   
Sirius Motor Starter ES Premium (Floating License)
2007 SP1
3ZS1 310-6CC10-0YA5
Sirius Motor Starter ES Standard (Floating License)
2007 SP1
3ZS1 310-5CC10-0YA5
Sirius Motor Starter ES Basic (Floating License)
2007 SP1
3ZS1 310-4CC10-0YA5
Sirius Soft Starter ES Premium (Floating License) 
2007 SP1
3ZS1 313-6CC10-0YA5
Sirius Soft Starter ES Standard (Floating License) 
2007 SP1
3ZS1 313-5CC10-0YA5
Sirius Soft Starter ES Basic (Floating License)
2007 SP1
3ZS1 313-4CC10-0YA5
Sirius SIMOCODE ES Premium (Floating License) 
2007 SP1
3ZS1 312-6CC10-0YA5
Sirius SIMOCODE ES Standard (Floating License)
2007 SP1
3ZS1 312-5CC10-0YA5
Sirius SIMOCODE ES Basic (Floating License) 
2007 SP1
3ZS1 312-4CC10-0YA5
Sirius Modular Safety System ES 2008 3ZS1314-5CC10-0YA5
Please note:
  • The products STEP 7, S7-SCL, S7-GRAPH and S7-PLCSIM are also available as a bundle in “STEP 7 Professional”.
  • Existing product licenses can be upgraded with the upgrade licenses provided for this purpose.

Installation requirements
Hardware requirements 
Premium Studio includes software packages for different target systems. A difference is made between PGs/PCs (Programming devices / PCs) and the PCU50 target system (target system of the SINUMERIK HMI runtime software). To be able work with the software on these DVDs, you require one of the following two hardware platforms and a DVD drive:

  • A programming device or a PC with Pentium III microprocessor or better and at least 256 MB RAM. We recommend a Pentium IV microprocessor with min. 512 MB RAM. The required space on the hard disk is approx. 15 GB for a complete installation of all the included software packages.
     
  • PCU50 with 566 MHz microprocessor and min. 256 MB RAM. We recommend a microprocessor with 1.2 GHz and 256 MB RAM. The required space on the hard disk depends on the scope of the installation and is up to 3 GB for the installed software. 

The Premium Studio Setup automatically identifies the target system and offers only the relevant products for installation.
Operating system / software requirements

  • Microsoft Windows XP Professional Service Pack 2
  • Microsoft Windows Vista Business / Ultimate (not all included products support this operating system)
  • WinCC requires the WinCC embedded SQL server for operation (supplied together with Premium Studio).

Readme files
The Readme file on the DVD provides more information on the products.
You can read it as pdf::

Ordering information

Designation Order No.
Premium Studio 2009, on DVD with Trial Licenses for many of the included software products. 6ES7815-8CD08-0YA7
Premium Studio Software Update Service (SUS). The scope of delivery only includes the data carrier (DVD) with Trial License. 6ES7815-8CD00-0YL7
For more information please go to the Siemens Internet Pages or the A&D Mall, or you can speak to your SIMATIC partner at your local Siemens office (SIMATIC partners in the Internet)

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Siemens AGImage via Wikipedia

Long day… I’m not write in my blog because I’m working for 2 months in China and Blogger is blocked by Law.
 Today, I got news… Please read below, I hope useful for us.. Thanks.

Service Pack 1 download for WinCC flexible 2008.
Installation Prerequisite:

  • WinCC flexible 2008 Micro
  • WinCC flexible 2008 Compact
  • WinCC flexible 2008 Standard
  • WinCC flexible 2008 Advanced
  • WinCC flexible 2008 ASIA Standard
  • WinCC flexible 2008 ASIA Advanced
  • WinCC flexible 2008 CHINA Standard
  • WinCC flexible 2008 Runtime

Please also take note of all the Service Pack 1 information and function expansions that we have put together in the article with the ID 34780187.  
Customers with a valid Software Update Service contract (SUS contract) for WinCC flexible 2008 will receive the Service Pack 1 automatically.  

For customers without SUS contract, we are making available the following supply sources:

  1. Order from your Siemens Representative You can order a DVD containing the Service Pack 1 for WinCC flexible 2008 from your Siemens representative for a nominal charge. You will require the following item number: S79220-B1580-P
     
  2. Free Download We are also offering a free download. Please be aware of the file size.

    WinCC flexible 2008 SP1.exe ( 1330906 KB )

If you have speed internet more than 300KBps it will be better, only need 1 hour for download.

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Made by me of a constructed panel with my digi...Image via Wikipedia
  • What is a PLC?
  • How many PLCs is your bottom line depending on?
  • Do you have an up to date list of all PLC model types, part availability, program copies, and details for your company?
  • Do you have at least one trained person per shift, to maintain and troubleshoot your plant PLCs?
  • Does your maintenance personnel work with PLCs following written company or corporate policy, and procedures?

If you could not answer with confidence or you answered ‘No’ to any of the above questions, you need to read this article on maintenance management of PLCs. Why? Because the PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers) are the brains of your operation. When the PLC is not functioning properly, lines shut down, plants shutdown, even city bridges and water stations could cease to operate. Thousands to millions could be lost by one little PLC in an electrical panel that you never even knew existed. But most importantly, damage to machine and personnel could result from improper maintenance management of your company’s PLCs.
What is a PLC?
First I’d like to explain in the most non-technical terms possible, What a PLC is. As this article is not just for the maintenance technician, but for maintenance managers, plant managers and corporate managers. A PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is the type of computer that controls most machines today. The PLC is used to control AND to troubleshoot the machine. The PLC is the brain of the machine. Without it, the machine is dead. The maintenance technicians we train, are the brain surgeons. That is how I explain it to my doctor any way. (His mouth drops open, “… you train brain surgeons?”)
Important Note: Just as a doctor asks the patient questions to figure out what is wrong, a maintenance technician asks the PLC questions to troubleshoot the machine. The maintenance technician uses a laptop computer to see what conditions have to be met in order for the PLC to cause an action to occur (like turn a motor on). In a reliable maintenance management environment, the maintenance technician will be using the PLC as a troubleshooting tool to reduce downtime.
A little more detailed definition of a PLC: A programmable controller is a small industrial strength computer used to control real world actions, based on its program and real world sensors. The PLC replaces thousands of relays that were in older electrical panels, and allows the maintenance technician to change the way a machine works without having to do any wiring. The program is typically in ladder logic, which is similar to the wiring schematics maintenance electricians are already accustomed to working with. Inputs to a PLC can be switches, sensors, bar codes, machine operator data, etc. Outputs from the PLC can be motors, air solenoids, indicator lights, etc.
How many PLCs is your bottom line depending on?
My company has had an ongoing PLC related global maintenance survey since the year 2000. The majority of the participants back in 2001, reported 3-6 PLCs in their facility, that they know of. Granted most participants are managers and don’t open electrical panels much, but many of the participants are from fortune 500 companies having hundreds of employees. The odds are most of them have 12-30 PLCs in their facilities. Currently the average is 6-9 reported, so the good news is the industry as a whole is becoming more PLC aware.
It is common to only learn about a PLC once the machine is down and the clock is ticking at a thousand dollars an hour, or more. Unfortunately, it is also common that after the fire is out, it’s on to the next fire, without fully learning what can be done to avoid these costly downtimes in the future, and in other similar machines in a company or corporation.
Some older electrical panels may only have relays in them, but most machines are controlled by a PLC. A bottleneck machine in your facility may have a PLC. Most plant air compressors have a PLC. How much would it cost if the bottleneck or plant air shut down a line, a section of your facility, or even the entire plant?
Do you have an up to date list of all PLC model types, part availability, program copies and details for your company?
The first step to take is to perform a PLC audit. Open every electrical panel, and write down the PLC brand, model, and other pertinent information. Then go the next two steps. Analyze the audit information and risk, then act on that analysis. To help you out, I want to share with you our company PLC audit form.

Collected Information Recommended Action
Machine or Area Name Ex: warehouse conveyor, pump station 3, Strapper 2, Line 7, Traffic signal west main, etc.
PLC Program Name Ex: 1789GAA1, P3, Strap2, 5872443, WestMainTL, etc.
Network Node Address No two addresses will be the same. Ex: 2, 3, 17, 21
Network Name Common to be same as Program name, but not mandatory.
PLC Brand Ex: Allen Bradley, Siemens, Schneider, Mitsubishi, DirectSoft, Omron
PLC Model Number Ex: PLC-5/25, SLC-504, SIMATIC S5, MELSEC FX1N, DL 405
Is Spare Available Yes on shelf, or only in less critical machines or no
Date Program Last Backed Up Make program backups part of your semiannual PM program
Discriptored Copy of program available Without discriptored copy of program, troubleshooting and downtime are greatly increased.
Does PLC have EEPROM Or other method of storing backup program in a chip on PLC
Last date Program Changed Remember to log when outside consultants or OEM make program changes too.
Last date EEPROM Burned Should be saved to EEPROM (Burned) after every successful program change.
Date battery last changed See manufacturer’s data for recommended change frequency.
Other information you may need Might be facility location when corporate HQ is using this form.

Once you have collected the basic information in your Plant wide and/or corporate audit, you need to analyze the information to develop an action plan based on risk analysis. In the risk analysis, bottlenecks and other factors will help you assess priorities. Starting with the highest priority PLC, you will need to ask more important questions.

  • Do we have the most common spares for the PLC?
  • Is the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) available 24/7? Or even in business any more?
  • Do we have a back up copy of the PLC program?
  • Does our program copy have descriptions so we can work with it reliably and efficiently?
  • Do we have the software needed to view the PLC program? Are our maintenance personnel trained on that PLC brand?

These are some of the questions our managers must ask, to avoid unnecessary risk and to insure reliability.
Do you have at least one trained person per shift to maintain and troubleshoot your plant PLCs?
Is your maintenance staff trained on the PLC? (Silly to squander over a couple thousand in maintenance training when the lack of PLC knowledge could cost you 10 thousand an hour. … or worse. I can give you a couple good reasons why you should have at least one trained person per shift, to work reliably with PLCs. You do not want to see greater downtime on off shifts because the knowledge base is on day shift only. Also with all the baby boomers (our core knowledge base in the industry) about to retire, it is not smart management to place all your eggs in one basket.
Then the question should be asked, what should we look for in training. Well I have been training individuals for over a decade and could easily write another article on just PLC training alone. I can tell you here, that you should seek training with two primary objectives.
1. The training you decide on, should stress working with PLCs in a Safe and Reliable way. (not just textbook knowledge or self learned knowledge)
2. Secondly, the training should be actually centered around the PLC products you are using or plan to use in your facility.
I feel the two criteria above are the most important. Some other good ideas to get more out of your PLC training investment would be to get hands on training using the actual PLC programs and software the maintenance technician will be working with in the facility. Insure your personnel have the software, equipment and encouragement to continue with self education. PLC Training CBT (Computer Based Training) CDs are a great way for employees to follow up 6 months after the initial training. Some other ideas you could do is to provide them with simulation software and/or a spare PLC off the shelf to practice with.
Does your maintenance personnel work with PLCs following written company or corporate policy and procedures?
It seems that in our industrial culture, if policy and procedures are not written and enforced, we eventually stray back to the old unreliable ways. I have reviewed many policy and procedures as well as books on the topic matter and hardly ever see maintenance management of the PLCs included. It amazes me how an organization can write guidelines for what they believe is the health of the entire organization’s body, and leave out the brain (the PLC :>). Once again, a complete PLC policy and procedure manual is out of the scope of this article. However, I will donate a few random items below to get you started.

  1. Write PLC policies and procedures into your existing maintenance policy and procedures. (SOP)
  2. All personnel working with PLCs will be trained on that PLC equipment.
  3. Backup copies of the PLC programs will be made every 6 months regardless of change status.
  4. If a PLC program has been changed …
    • It will be documented in the software copy, in the printed copy and in the CMMS program.
    • Copies of the PLC program will be stored on a media more reliable than floppy disk (CD, USB, etc.).
    • Multiple copies will be stored on laptop, maintenance manager’s office and off site (corporate).
    • If available, EEPROM will be updated with new changed program.
    • If outside vendor changes, a-d will be performed by maintenance personnel
  5. Future equipment purchases …
    • A common PLC brand in all equipment will be sought out (Standardization of PLC types)
    • OEM will be required to provide a descriptor copy of PLC programs in the customer’s native language.
    • All PLC 110v control voltage will have a line filter on it.
    • All PLCs will have the backup EEPROM option for zero downtime in some failure modes.
  6. Forcing inputs and outputs on or off shall be treated as a Safety issue. (See safety SOP)
  7. Inputs and outputs shall not be forced on or off with out a clear understanding of complete effect on PLC program and a second opinion.
    • If forces are installed, they shall be removed with in 24 hours and a more permanent solution found.
    • All forces should be documented in software and a written log before being enabled.
  8. Online programming is somewhat of a safety risk, normal procedure is to change offline and download to the PLC.

Hope this helps, if you have a specific question you can find me in the PLC discussion area at the PLC Discussion Forum.
Don Fitchett (President)
Business Industrial Network
PLC Training – The best for less
www.bin95.com

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TOC
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
Section
I. GENERAL INFORMATION
Purpose
References
II. MAINTENANCE PLANNING
Programming and economic considerations
Elements of the maintenance program
III. FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
Military requirements
Factors of frequency
IV. QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTION PERSONNEL
Army
Air Force
2. BRIDGE STRUCTURES
Definition
Classification
Typical bridges
Box culverts
Military bridges
3. BRIDGE ELEMENTS
I. SUBSTRUCTURE ELEMENTS
General
Abutments
Piers and bents
II. SUPERSTRUCTURES
General
Decks
Floor systems
Main supporting members
Bracing
III. MISCELLANEOUS ELEMENTS
Bearings
Pin and hanger supports
Expansion joints
Approaches
Railings, sidewalks, and curbs
Deck drains
Utilities
Lighting
Dolphins and fenders
Welds, bolts, and rivets
4. MECHANICS OF BRIDGES
General
Bridge forces
Stress
5. BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
I. CONCRETE
General
Physical and mechanical properties
Indication and classification of deterioration
Causes of deterioration
Assessment of concrete
II. STRUCTURAL STEEL
Physical and mechanical properties
Indicators and classification of deterioration
Causes of deterioration
Assessment of deterioration
III. TIMBER
Physical and mechanical properties
Deterioration: indicators and causes
Assessment of deterioration
IV. WROUGHT AND CAST IRON
General
Physical and mechanical properties
Deterioration: indicators and causes
V. STONE MASONRY
General
Physical and mechanical properties
Indicators of deterioration
Causes of deterioration
VI. ALUMINUM
General
Deterioration: indicators and causes
VII. FOUNDATION SOILS
General
Types of movement
Effects on structures
Indicators of movement
Causes of foundation movements
VIII. WATERWAYS
General
Types of movement and effects on waterways
CHAPTER 6. BRIDGE REDUNDANCY AND FRACTURE CRITICAL MEMBERS (FCMs)
I. GENERAL
Introduction
Fracture critical members
Redundancy
Criticality of FCMs
II. EXAMPLES
Two-girder system (or single-box girder)
Two-truss system
Cross girders and pier caps
Supports and suspended spans
7. INSPECTION CONSIDERATIONS
I. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
Basic
Concrete inspection
Steel inspection
Timber inspection
Cast iron, wrought iron, and aluminum inspection
Special equipment
II. SAFETY
General
Bridge site organization
Personal protection
Special safety equipment
Climbing of high steel
Confined spaces
III. DOCUMENTATION OF THE BRIDGE INSPECTION
General
Planning and documenting the inspection
Structure evaluation
IV. INSPECTION PROCEDURE
General
Inspection sequence
CHAPTER 8. BRIDGE COMPONENT INSPECTION
Section I. SUBSTRUCTURES
General
Abutments
Retaining walls
Piers and bents
Pile bents
Dolphins and fenders
II. SUPERSTRUCTURES
Concrete beams and girders
Steel beams and girders
Pin and hanger connections
Floor systems
Diaphragms and cross frames
Trusses
Lateral bracing portals and sway frames
Tied arches
Metal bearings
Elastomeric bearings
Decks
Expansion joints
Railings, sidewalks, and curbs
Approaches
Bridge drainage
III. MISCELLANEOUS INSPECTION ITEMS
Waterways
Paint
Signing
Utilities
Lighting
IV. INSPECTION OF RAILROAD BRIDGES
General
Railroad deck types
Track inspection
Deck inspection
Superstructure inspection
Substructure inspection
Recommended practices
V. BOX CULVERTS
Types of distress
Inspection
9. FINAL DOCUMENTATION
Annual (Army) and biannual (Air Force) inspection documentation
Triennial (Army) and every third biannual (Air Force) bridge inspection
documentation
10. GENERAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. INTRODUCTION
General
Preventive maintenance
Replacement
Repair
Bridge upgrade
II. COMMON MAINTENANCE TASKS
General
Cleaning deck drains
Ice and snow removal
Bank restoration
Traffic control items
Bearings and rollers
Debris and removal
Bridge joint systems
Scour protection
III. COMMON REPAIR TASKS
General
Abutment stability
Drift and floating ice
Scour
Settlement
Waterway
Section IV. COMMON METHODS TO UPGRADE EXISTING BRIDGES
General
Shortened span lengths
Add stringers
Strengthen piers
Reduce deadload
Posttensioned bridge components
Strengthen individual members
CHAPTER 11. STEEL BRIDGE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR CORROSION
General
Structural steel
II. REPAIR AND STRENGTHEN
General
Connections
Repair of structural members
III. MEMBER REPLACEMENT
Tension members
Compression members/columns
Beams
IV. UPGRADE STEEL BRIDGES
Creation of a composite action
Posttensioning
Truss systems
12. TIMBER BRIDGE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
General
Fire protection
II. REPAIR AND STRENGTHEN TIMBER MEMBERS
General
Connections
Repair of graded lumber
Repair of piles
Repair of posts
Repair of sway bracing
III. MEMBER REPLACEMENT
Replacement of tension timber components
Replacement of compression timber components
Replacement of flexural timber components (stringers)
Replacement of timber decking
IV. TIMBER BRIDGE UPGRADE
Strengthen intermediate supports (piers)
Shorten span length
Posttensioning
Add stringers
Strengthen individual members
13. CONCRETE BRIDGE MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, AND UPGRADE
I. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
General
Surface coating
Joint maintenance
Cathodic protection
II. REPAIR AND STRENGTHEN
General
Crack repairs
Spall repair
Joint repair
Abutments and wingwalls
Bridge seats
Columns and piles
Stringers and beams
Decks
Replacement of concrete members
Section III. UPGRADE CONCRETE BRIDGES
General upgrade methods
Strengthen individual members
Prestressed concrete members
Download : pdf1

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Membersihkan Noda Jok Mobil

Anak adalah buah hati orang tuanya, dan mereka kerap kali dibawa kemanapun sang ibu pergi (terutama bila berkendaraan). Bepergian tersebut juga memerlukan persiapan khusus, diantaranya adalah membawa bekal untuk makan/minum anak, atau pakaian ganti. Untuk balita, satu benda yang tidak pernah tertinggal adalah botol susu/minuman. Nah, minum susu dalam perjalanan ini yang kerap menjadi bencana kecil, karena kondisi jalan atau hal lain, susu sering kali tumpah di atas jok mobil Anda.Kejadian ini sering kali tidak diambil pusing, namun jangan salah. Mendiamkan noda susu atau minuman (kecuali air putih) hingga merembes ke dalam jok hanya akan membuat bau asam atau tidak sedap tercium. Ini dapat menimbulkan jamur dan menarik perhatian hewan-hewan menjijikkan seperti kecoa masuk ke dalam mobil. Belum lagi, noda tersebut akan membuat kusam. Untuk mengatasinya, ada kiat-kiat tertentu yang bisa dilakukan, tentunya dengan meluangkan sedikit waktu Anda.

Ada beberapa alat yang dapat digunakan dan dapat diperoleh dari sekitar rumah, yaitu sikat besar, sikat gigi, kain serbet, kain putih, sprayer, air berisi sabun deterjen, dan terakhir vacuum-cleaner. Kemudian perhatikan tipe jok mobil Anda, ada dua bahan : kulit dan kain, yang masing-masing memerlukan penanganan berbeda. Untuk jok kain, yang perlu dicermati adalah sifatnya yang cepat menyerap air/merembes, sehingga perlu penanganan yang cepat. Sementara untuk yang jenis kulit akan lebih mudah, mengingat sifatnya yang lambat menyerap air. Selain itu, sebagai pencegahan kejadian serupa terulang di kemudian hari, ada baiknya bila jok dilapisi oleh cover setiap kali mengajak buah hati.Tips membersikan jok mobil dari noda susu :

1. Bersihkan jok denga mesin penyedot debu.
2. Seprotkan deterjen ke jok mobil.
3. Sikat jok mobil sampai noda hilang.
4. Keringkan dengan menggunakan penyedot debu.
5. Semprotkan pengharum mobil.
6. Gunakan penutup jok untuk menghindari jok mobil dari noda.

Mobil Sulit Dihidupkan, Bagaimana Mengatasinya?

Sulit di-starter atau mesin tidak mau hidup kerap menjadi masalah tersendiri bagi mobil pribadi seseorang, apalagi bila ternyata si pemiliknya sama sekali tidak mengerti bagaimana merawat mobil. Jangan sampai Anda menjadi salah satu diantara mereka yang buta teknologi, sebab mati mesin tak jarang terjadi di saat Anda sama sekali tidak mengharapkannya (misalnya menjelang rapat penting). Untuk itu, simak tips-tips berikut ini.Hal pertama yang perlu diketahui adalah sistem kelistrikan mobil, konvensional ataukah mobil modern yang sudah menggunakan CDI (dalam arti serba elektronik). Bila mobil Anda telah menggunakan sistem serba elektronik, jangan berusaha untuk membetulkannya secara manual karena sistem ini membutuhkan ahli mekanik yang handal serta peralatan yang hanya ada di bengkel-bengkel mobil.Biasanya ada dua hal yang menjadi penyebab mobil tidak bisa di-starter, pertama adalah karena aki yang sudah dalam kondisi kurang bagus sistem kelistrikannya. Kedua adalah karena supply listrik pada dinamo pada sistem pengapian konvensional. Platina mungkin sudah tidak baik. Kalo teknologi yang lebih maju, mungkin karena CDI. Kalou udah masalah CDI, perluke bengkel karena udah rumit dan sulit ditangani sendiri. Di permukaan atas dari aki ada indikator yang menunjukkan kondisi terakhir dari aki. Bisa nunjukkin kondisi aki bagus/rusak, atau air aki kosong.Kalo udah diperiksa tapi mobil masih tidak bisa dihidupkan, hal itu bisa jadi disebabkan karena platina dan kondensor. Masalah biasanya pada plat yang terdapat di platina. Kalo tonjolannya sudah kusam berarti berarti tidak bisa menangkap percikan listrik. Supaya platina bisa kembali berfungsi dengan baik, gunakan amplas untuk menghapus debu/flek yang menempel. Bila sudah selesai, pasang kembali pada posisi semula. Platina yang telah dibersihkan biasanya akan mampu memancing percikan api sehingga kembali besar, Bila tidak, berarti platina sudah tidak bisa dipakai dan harus diganti.Langkah berikutnya adalah melakukan pemeriksaan boks sekring. Perhatikan apakah sekring yang telah terpasang masih utuh atau tidak. Kalau kawat sambungannya sudah putus, berarti sekring sudah harus diganti. Untuk keadaan darurat, Anda bisa memakai kawat atau serabut kabel untuk dipasang sementara pada sekring tersebut. Hal ini tidak direkomendasikan sebagai solusi permanen, karena itu ganti secepatnya dengan membawa mobil ke bengkel.

Hal terakhir yang biasa menjadi biang keladi mesin mobil tidak bisa di-starter adalah karena suplai bahan bakar/udara yang kurang pada sistem karburator (dalam hal ini berarti saringan karburator kotor). Periksa saringannya, cabut filter-nya dan bersihkan dengan kuas atau sikat gigi. Jangan gunakan alat pemanas seperti hair-dryer dan sejenisnya, karena hal tersebut bisa merusak dinding saringan udara.Bila semuanya sudah dilakukan dan tidak ada perkembangan, tidak bisa tidak, bawalah mobil Anda ke bengkel terdekat. Jangan-jangan, kerusakan bukan hanya pada aki atau platina Anda.

—–

Mobil Terpelihara Meski Jarang Dipakai

Mungkin Anda adalah salah satu dari orang yang sangat sibuk, tugas memaksa untuk kerap bepergian ke luar kota atau negeri dalam jangka waktu lama. Bila Anda memiliki mobil pribadi, hal ini harus diperhatikan supaya saat kembali nanti, kendaraan tidak dalam kondisi terlantar atau mengenaskan. Langkah pertama yang harus Anda lakukan adalah mencuci mobil sebelum ditinggalkan. Kemudian, ikuti tips-tips berikut.

1. Posisi rem tangan dibebaskan
Kalau dibiarkan dalam keadaan rem tangan masuk, terutama dalam waktu lama, akan terjadi kelengketan antara minyak dengan piringan rem, khususnya bagi kendaraan yang memiliki tromol di roda belakang. Satu hal tambahan, ada baiknya kunci mobil Anda biarkan tergantung di kemudi kendaraan Anda. Bila rumah Anda mempunyai pembantu, hal ini akan sangat berguna untuk memanaskan kendaraan setiap hari. Namun jangan tinggalkan kunci mobil bila ternyata Anda tidak mempunyai garasi atau berada di tempat terbuka.

2. Ganjal wiper dengan busa/kayu
Bila terus bersentuhan dengan kaca mobil, karet wiper perlahan akan mengeras dan tidak lentur lagi. Akibatnya karet tersebut (yang biasa disebut karet mati) akan terasa kasar saat kelak dipergunakan untuk membasuh kaca depan mobil Anda.

3. Usahakan keempat ban dalam kondisi terangkat tidak menempel lantai
Caranya, cukup dengan menggunakan dongkrak dan stand-jack. Tujuannya adalah supaya suspensi mobil terjaga dan tidak terbebani oleh berat kendaraan. Sebuah mobil yang tidak pernah digunakan dalam waktu cukup lama biasanya suspensinya akan naik-turun, sehingga bila dipergunakan nanti, mobil akan terasa tidak nyaman.

4. Lepaskan aki bila mobil ditinggal lebih dari dua minggu
Kenapa? Alasannya adalah karena aki mobil sangat sensitif. Bila kendaraan tidak dinyalakan sama sekali dalam waktu dua minggu atau lebih (terutama bila di rumah yang Anda tinggalkan tidak ada pembantu), hal itu akan berpengaruh ke akinya, yang bisa lebih cepat rusak dibandingkan dengan kendaraan yang setiap hari dipakai.

5. Bila tempat parkir miring, ganjal empat ban anda dengan balok
Ini berlaku bagi Anda yang mempunyai garasi dengan permukaan miring. Di tips pertama disebutkan bahwa tidak baik memasukkan posisi rem tangan bila kendaraan ditinggal cukup lama, namun bagaiman bila permukaannya miring? Caranya mudah, cukup ganjal keempat ban dengan balok atau benda keras lainnya supaya mobil tidak berubah posisi.

6. Taruh pengharum mobil, dan tutup mobil dengan cover
Pengharum berfungsi untuk menetralkan bau apek yang mungkin timbul karena ruang dalam mobil tertutup dalam waktu lama. Selain itu, mobil yang dibiarkan dalam keadaan terbuka juga memudahkan partikel-partikel debu masuk ke dalam mobil melalui celah-celah, suatu hal yang tentunya tidak diinginkan oleh setiap pemilik mobil. Untuk menghindarinya, cukup beli penutup mobil yang biasa dijual di toko-toko aksesoris mobil.
——
Perawatan Pintu Mobil

Pintu mobil merupakan bagian kendaraan sangat penting untuk dirawat, sehingga menjamin keamanan & kenyamanan pada saat berkendaraan. Pintu mobil sering luput dari perhatian pemiliknya, padahal jika terjadi kerusakan bisa berakibat fatal.

Akibatnya,
Misalnya, bila rel kaca sudah getas sehingga air bisa masuk ke celah pintu dan membuat mekanisme penggerak kaca jendela berkarat. Sehingga saat naik turunnya kaca akan terasa berat dan harus dibantu dengan tangan. Belum lagi terdengar suara berderit, serta pemutar kaca bisa macet seketika. Demikian juga dengan gagang pintu, jika pelumas untuk mekanisme pembuka pintu mengering, pintu akan sulit dibuka.

Hal Yang Dilakukan:
Tips perawatan berikut ini, sebaiknya dilakukan minimal 6 bulan sekali :
1. Sediakan peralatan yang dibutuhkan seperti obeng plus dan min, kuas, solar, gemuk dan pelumas semprotan.
2. Buka panel penutup (trim pintu) dengan posisi kaca turun ke bawah. Buka baut pegangan pintu dan gagangnya dengan obeng plus. Lalu lepas tuas pemutar kaca dengan mencungkil pin.
3. Buka panel pintu dengan mencungkilnya pakai obeng min. Untuk mobil dengan ‘power window’ copot sakelarnya. Perhatikan lis kaca (weather strip) bersihkan kotoran yang menempel pakai kuas dan solar. Tunggu sampai kering. Atau bersihkan dengan air sabun dan setelah kering bersihkan dengan lap.
4. Bersihkan gigi regulator dan oleskan dengan gemuk. Juga gigi penggerak motor untuk yang menggunakan power window. Lumasi juga lengan pemutar dan pernya.
5. Periksa tangkai pengimbang regulator, juga rel atas dan bawah penggerak tangkai regulator. Bersihkan dengan solar lalu olesi dengan gemuk.
6. Setel kaca yang miring dengan cara menaikkan kaca setengah dan kendurkan dua baut pengimbang bagian bawah. Setelah itu dorong kaca ke belakang dan kencangkan kembali baut pengimbangnya.
7. Perhatikan bukaan pintu luar, cek apakah terasa ada pergeseran jika difungsikan. Jika ya, lumasi dengan pelumas semprotan. Saat melakukan penyemprotan, sekalian cek dengan memainkan bukaan pintu luar dan dalam.
8. Periksa tangkai besi pengunci pintu. Terutama bagian bawah yang menggerakkan kunci. Bersihkan bila berkarat atau kotor dan semprotkan pelumas.
9. Jika sudah selesai pasang kembali panel pintu, untuk yang power window jangan lupa pasang sakelar kembali.
——–

Kendaraan Konstan, Hemat BBM

Anda mungkin sering melihat pengemudi yang kerap memacu kendaraannya dalam kecepatan tinggi, tentunya dengan alasan agar cepat sampai ke tempat tujuan? Namun tahukah Anda bahwa kendaraan yang dipacu dalam kecepatan diatas rata-rata dapat menguras bahan bakar mobil lebih cepat dari seharusnya, belum lagi resiko kecelakaan yang harus ditanggung? Untuk mengatasi resiko boros bensin, tim RODA memberikan beberapa tips yang mungkin bermanfaat bagi Anda.Langkah pertama (ini yang cukup sulit, terutama bagi Anda yang memiliki jiwa pembalap) adalah menjaga supaya laju kendaraan tetap konstan. Setiap kali hendak pindah gigi, usahakan supaya kisaran RPM mobil berada pada angka 3000-4000 (untuk kendaraan bensin) dan 2500-3500 (untuk yang berbahan bakar solar). Dengan begitu, bensin/solar yang digunakan sebagai sumber daya tenaga utama untuk menjalankan kendaraan juga ’dibakar’ dengan jumlah konstan.Untuk jalanan menanjak, kecepatan dan hal diatas yang terutama harus diperhatikan. Sementara untuk jalan menurun, pengereman/penggunaan rem juga harus konstan dalam menjaga laju kendaraan. Rem yang diinjak harus seimbang, dan jaga supaya RPM tidak melebihi batas yang ditentukan (salah satu caranya adalah dengan memindahkan persneling). Selain itu, mainkan gigi mobil Anda supaya kecepatan dan laju RPM konstan.

Langkah terakhir adalah dalam membuka kaca mobil. Sering kali dalam perjalanan jauh atau dekat (terutama bila mobil tidak dilengkapi oleh peralatan pendingin), kita membuka jendela mobil supaya udara sejuk mengalir masuk. Namun jangan salah, seandainya harus dibuka, usahakan supaya jangan hanya satu melainkan kedua sisi (kiri dan kanan) jendela yang dibuka. Sebab seandainya Anda hanya membuka satu sisi saja, maka sirkulasi udara hanya akan berjalan satu arah (masuk) dan dengan sendirinya akan menghambat kecepatan laju kendaraan. Otomatis, bahan bakar akan lebih banyak dikuras.

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