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Archive for February, 2009

Handbook of Polymer Testing
Smithers Rapra Technology | ISSN 185957324X | 2002-06-01 | PDF | 224 Pages | 7,6 Mb

Knowledge of the properties of plastics is essential for designing products, specifying the material to be used, carrying out quality control on finished products, failure analysis and for understanding the structure and behaviour of new materials.

Each class of materials has its own specific test procedures, which have developed as the material has evolved. This book concentrates on one area of testing – short-term mechanical tests. These are defined as tests of mechanical properties where the effects of long periods of time and cycling are ignored. This group of tests includes hardness, tensile, compression, shear, flexing, impact and tear and in this book it is also taken to include density and dimensional measurement together with test piece preparation and conditioning.

The topics covered in this book, include:

1 Introduction: this explains, Reasons for Testing, Source and Condition of Test Pieces, Test Conditions, Limitations of Results, Sampling, Standards, Quality Control of Testing, Test Equipment, Product Testing, and Modes of Stressing.

2 Test Piece Preparation: Mixing, Moulding, Stamping from Sheet or Film, and Machining.

3 Conditioning: Storage, Conditioning, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Conditioning, Test Conditions, and Apparatus for Conditioning.

4 Mass, Density and Dimensions: Measurement of Mass, of Density, and of Dimensions.

5 Hardness: Relationships, Standard Methods, and Other Methods.

6 Tensile Stress-Strain: General, and Test Methods.

7 Compression Stress-Strain: Test Apparatus, Standard, and Other Tests.

8 Shear Properties: Standard, and Other Tests.

9 Flexural Stress-Strain: General, and Test Methods.

10 Impact Strength: General, and Specific Tests.

11 Tear Properties: Test Piece Geometry, Standard, and Other Tests

12 Fracture Toughness: Standard, and Other Methods.

This book will be useful to all those who are already involved in the testing of polymers and it is an ideal guide to those just starting out in the field, whether in academia or industry.

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Handbook of Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids
Publisher: Elsevier Science | Pages: 872 | 2001-11-05 | ISBN: 0444502351 | PDF | 35 MB

Product Description:

This handbook presents comprehensive coverage of the technology for conveying and handling particulate solids. Each chapter covers a different topic and contains both fundamentals and applications. Usually, each chapter, or a topic within a chapter, starts with one of the review papers. Chapter 1 covers the characterization of the particulate materials. Chapter 2 covers the behaviour of particulate materials during storage, and presents recent developments in storage and feeders design and performance. Chapter 3 presents fundamental studies of particulate flow, while Chapters 4 and 5 present transport solutions, and the pitfalls of pneumatic, slurry, and capsule conveying. Chapters 6, 7 and 8 cover both the fundamentals and development of processes for particulate solids, starting from fluidisation and drying, segregation and mixing, and size-reduction and enlargement. Chapter 9 presents environmental aspects and the classification of the particulate materials after they have been handled by one of the above-mentioned processes. Finally, Chapter 10 covers applications and developments of measurement techniques that are the heart of the analysis of any conveying or handling system.

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J R White, S K De, “Rubber Technologist’s Handbook”
Smithers Rapra Technology | 2001-12-05 | ISBN: 1859574408 | 600 pages | PDF | 4,9 MB

Rubber components are found in almost every area of modern life. Rubber is used in cars, in shoes, in construction and is used in many other applications.

This book provides a foundation in rubber technology and discusses the most recent developments in the subject. The book is written by experts in their respective fields.

The fourteen chapters cover natural rubber, synthetic rubber, thermoplastic elastomers, fillers, compounding additives, mixing, engineering design, testing, tyre technology, automotive applications, footwear, rubbers in construction, durability of rubber products and rubber recycling.

The book will serve the needs of those who are already in the rubber industry and new entrants to the field who aspire to build a career in rubber and allied areas. Materials Science students and researchers, designers and engineers should all find this handbook helpful.

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Determination of Additives in Polymers and Rubber
Publisher: Smithers Rapra | Pages: 450 | 2007-03-21 | ISBN 1847350003 | PDF | 2.5 MB

This book is designed as a practical text for use in the laboratories of the plastic producer and user industries and by others such as universities and institutions who are concerned with problems associated with additives and adventitious impurities in polymers. It is now about 30 years since the author wrote his first book on this subject and much has happened in the field since then. For example powerful new analytical tools have been made available to the chemist by a combination of various chromatographic techniques with methods of identifying separated additives and their degradation products by techniques based on infrared and mass spectrometry. In particular supercritical fluid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry has come to the fore. Combinations of polymer pyrolysis with gas chromatography with mass spectrometric identification of the pyrolysis products is throwing new light on what happens to antioxidants and other polymer additives during polymer processing and a products’ life. Similarly evolved gas analysis and then thermogravimetry and dynamic scanning calorimetry is proving very useful in antioxidant loss studies. The book is an up-to-date coverage of the present state of knowledge on the subject of polymer additive systems and as such should be extremely useful to workers in the field.

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Reiji Mezaki, Masafumi Mochizuki, Kohei Ogawa, “Engineering Data on Mixing”
Elsevier Science | 1999-11-01 | ISBN:0444828028 | 780 pages | PDF | 19,6 Mb

his book is a compilation of the engineering data on mixing, which have appeared in the major technical journals of chemical engineering and bioengineering since 1975. That year marked the beginning of a period of rapid advancement in the science and technology of mixing, with rather reliable results for both theoretical and experimental studies. In addition, some important earlier articles which have been, and still are being referred to, are included.

Designs of both agitators and tanks still depend primarily on art and experience. In light of this it was felt that the data on mixing should be compiled and presented in a systematic manner to assist in design and analysis of agitated tanks, and to provide easier access to mixing data for various engineering activities. Although computer-aided searches of pertinent data bases can be of assistance to chemical engineers and bioengineers in their studies, they are sometimes time-consuming and often costly. Furthermore inadequate selection of key words can jeopardize the searches. This book offers an alternative method of surveying mixing data which interests readers.

The first chapter presents a variety of results for the experimental measurements of flow patterns in stirred tanks. Most of the measurements were made by using modern Laser-Doppler techniques. This chapter is useful for the prediction of flow patterns in tanks with many different geometries, various types of agitators, and fluids of diverse physical and rheological properties, plus valuable data for the validation of results obtained by CFD simulations. Chapters 2 through 5 deal with data for traditional chemical engineering subjects and Chapter 6 summarizes a number of scale-up relations developed over the years for various systems. These include liquid, solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, gas-liquid, and solid-liquid-gas systems. Chapter 7 provides data related to multiphase processes, and most importantly, drop size and drop-size distributions and bubble-size distributions. These two subjects have not been treated systematically either in text books or in handbooks on stirred-tank mixing, although the results of both experimental and theoretical investigations have been reported on many occasions. Finally gas-inducing mechanically agitated systems are dealt with. The applications of this type of agitation system will become increasingly attractive from the standpoint of rationalization of stirred-tank operations as well as environmental protection.

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Y. H. Hui, Harold Corke, Ingrid De Leyn, Wai-Kit Nip, Nanna A. Cross “Bakery Products: Science And Technology”
Wiley-Blackwell | 2006-07-11 | ISBN: 0813801877 | 592 pages | PDF | 27,4 MB

In Bakery Products: Science and Technology, nearly 50 professionals from industry, government, and academia contribute their perspectives on the state of baking today. The latest scientific developments, technological processes, and engineering principles are described as they relate to the essentials of baking. Coverage includes: raw materials and ingredients, from wheat flours to sweeteners, yeast, and functional additives; the principles of baking, such as mixing processes, doughmaking, and fermentation; and manufacturing considerations for bread and other bakery products, including quality control and enzymes. Discussion of special bakery products is extensive, ranging from manufacture of cakes, cookies, muffins, bagels, and pretzels to dietetic bakery products, gluten-free cereal-based products, and specialty bakery items from around the world, including Italian bakery foods.

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Hans Mollet, Arnold Grubenmann, “Formulation Technology: Emulsions, Suspensions, Solid Forms”

Wiley-VCH | 2001-01-23 | ISBN: 3527302018 | 450 pages | PDF | 30.3 MB

Formulation Technology: Emulsions, Suspensions, Solid Forms
By Hans Mollet, Arnold Grubenmann

* Publisher: Wiley-VCH
* Number Of Pages: 450
* Publication Date: 2001-01-23
* ISBN-10 / ASIN: 3527302018
* ISBN-13 / EAN: 9783527302017
* Binding: Hardcover

Description:

Many chemical substances or compounds – organic or inorganic, natural or synthetic – are not used in their pure form. In order for the active ingredient to be most effective or to obtain the ideal delivery form for the market, the actual synthesis and purification steps are followed by formulation to give end products that range from powders, agglomerates, and granules to suspensions, emulsions, microemulsions, microcapsules, instant preparations, liposomes, and tablets.

Formulation combines colloid and surface chemistry with chemical process engineering; sometimes it consists of a simple mixing operation, sometimes it requires an entire series of rather complicated engineering procedures such as comminution, dispersion, emulsification, agglomeration or drying.

This book covers basic physico-chemical theory as well as its applications in the chemical industry for the production of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, pigments and dyes, food, detergents, cosmetics and many other products; it also provides chemists and chemical engineers with the necessary practical tools for the understanding of the structure/ activity relationship.

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